General method for the assessment of the durability of energy-related products

The standard will cover a set of parameters for assessing durability of energy-related products (ErP) and a general method to describe and assess the durability of ErP, i.e. both electrotechnical and non-electro technical products, respectively it shall be applicable to all energy-related products, that is, all products covered by the Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC.

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Funktionsbeständigkeit energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Dieses Dokument definiert einen Rahmen, der Parameter und Verfahren zur Bewertung der Zuverlässigkeit und der Funktionsbeständigkeit von ErP umfasst. Es ist für die Verwendung bei der Vorbereitung produkt  oder produktgruppenspezifischer Normungsergebnisse vorgesehen.
ANMERKUNG 1 Dieses Dokument wurde unter dem Normungsauftrag M/543 der Europäischen Kommission zur Unterstützung der Richtlinie 2009/125/EG entwickelt.
ANMERKUNG 2 In diesem Dokument bezieht sich ‚Anwender dieses Dokuments‘ auf diejenigen Mitglieder Technischer Komitees, die horizontale, generische und produktspezifische oder produktgruppenspezifische Normen entwickeln. Dieses Dokument ist nicht dazu bestimmt, produktspezifische Angaben zu erstellen.
ANMERKUNG 3 Produktgruppe, wie in diesem Dokument verwendet, ist ein Oberbegriff, der sich auf eine Gruppe von Produkten mit ähnlichen Eigenschaften und Primärfunktion(en) bezieht.

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation de la durabilité des produits liés à l'énergie

Le présent document définit les paramètres et les méthodes en tant que cadre permettant d'évaluer la durabilité d’un ErP. Il est destiné à être utilisé lors de la préparation des livrables de normalisation pour l’évaluation de la durabilité d’un produit spécifique.

Splošna metoda za oceno trajnosti izdelkov, povezanih z energijo

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
11-Mar-2020
Completion Date
11-Mar-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 45552:2020
01-junij-2020
Splošna metoda za oceno trajnosti izdelkov, povezanih z energijo
General method for the assessment of the durability of energy-related products
Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Lebensdauer energieverbrauchsrelevanter
Produkte

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation de la durabilité des produits liés à l'énergie

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 45552:2020
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
SIST EN 45552:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 45552:2020
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 45552
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2020
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General method for the assessment of the durability of
energy-related products

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation de la durabilité Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der

des produits liés à l'énergie Funktionsbeständigkeit energieverbrauchsrelevanter
Produkte
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 February 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 45552:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

3.1 General definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 6

3.1.1 Terms related to reliability and durability ........................................................................................... 6

3.1.2 Terms related to functions .......................................................................................................................... 7

3.1.3 Activities related to use ................................................................................................................................ 8

3.1.4 Other terms ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Concept and process overview ................................................................................................................ 10

4.1 Concept ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.1.2 Difference between reliability and durability ................................................................................... 11

4.1.3 Concepts of functional analysis, primary, secondary and tertiary functions ......................... 11

4.1.4 Concepts of limiting event and limiting state .................................................................................... 12

4.2 Process overview and guidance .............................................................................................................. 12

5 Definition of the Product ........................................................................................................................... 13

5.1 Functional analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 13

5.2 Environmental and operating conditions ........................................................................................... 14

5.3 Additional information .............................................................................................................................. 14

6 Reliability ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

6.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 14

6.2 Reliability analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 15

6.3 Reliability assessment methods ............................................................................................................. 15

7 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 16

7.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 16

7.2 Durability analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 16

7.3 Durability assessment methods.............................................................................................................. 17

8 Documenting the assessment of reliability and durability ........................................................... 17

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.2 Elements of the assessment ...................................................................................................................... 17

8.3 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 18

Annex A (informative) Additional details on durability and reliability analysis .............................. 19

A.1 Environmental and operating conditions ........................................................................................... 19

A.2 Stress analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 20

A.3 Damage modelling ....................................................................................................................................... 21

A.4 Acceleration factors (AF) ........................................................................................................................... 21

Annex B (informative) Additional details on testing development ........................................................ 25

B.1 Stress modelling ........................................................................................................................................... 25

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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)

B.2 Accelerated tests ........................................................................................................................................... 25

Annex C (informative) Maintenance and repair considerations for an increased reliability

and durability ................................................................................................................................................ 28

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

C.2 Wear-out parts and spare parts considerations ............................................................................... 29

Annex D (informative) Additional details on limiting event and limiting state .................................. 31

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 32

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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 45552:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN-CENELEC/JTC 10

“Energy-related products – Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held

by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of

EU Directive (2009/125/EC).

The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 – 45559,

have been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are

intended to potentially apply to any product within the scope of the energy-related products (ErP)

Directive (2009/125/EC).

Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

aspects:
a) Extending product lifetime;

b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life;

c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products

These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product-specific or

product-group standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees.

This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, and

product, or product-group, standards.

NOTE CEN/CENELEC/JTC 10 is a joint TC, and uses either CEN or CENELEC foreword templates, as

appropriate. The template for the current document is correct at the time of publication.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
Introduction

As energy-related products (ErP) can often not be completely recycled, and the benefits associated with

material recovery cannot fully compensate the energy (and material) demand of the whole production

chain, each disposed ErP also means losses in energy and materials. Therefore, increasing the durability

of ErPs can contribute to a reduction in the quantity of raw materials used and energy required for the

production/disposal of ErPs and consequently reduces adverse environmental impacts.

When considering durability, the trade-off between longer lifetime (reducing impacts related to the

manufacturing and disposal of the product) and reduced environmental impacts of new products

(compared to worse/decreasing energy efficiency of older products) needs to be considered. In

addition, consumer behaviour and advances in technology have to be taken into account.

Considerations such as these are addressed in the preparatory studies commissioned under

Directive 2009/125/EC. Whilst such aspects establish a relevant context for this standard, they are not

addressed in this document.

This document covers a general method for the assessment of the reliability and the durability of ErPs.

Reliability represents the assessment of a probability of duration from first use to first failure or in-

between failures. Durability is the whole expected time for this same period and not a probability. To

cover other material efficiency aspects of a product, the generic standards on “General methods for the

assessment of the ability to repair, reuse and upgrade energy-related products – EN 45554:2020”,

“General method for assessing the ability of an energy-related product to be remanufactured –

EN 45553:-” , or equivalent standards can be taken into consideration.

This document describes a general assessment method that is intended to be adapted for application at

a product or product-group level, in order to assess the reliability/the durability of ErPs.

Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: FprEN 45553:2020.
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document defines a framework comprising of parameters and methods for assessing the reliability

and durability of ErPs. It is intended to be used in the preparation of product or product-group

standardization deliverables.

NOTE 1 This document has been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European

Commission to support Directive 2009/125/EC.

NOTE 2 Throughout this document, reference to ‘user of this document’ refers to those members of technical

committees that are developing horizontal, generic, and product, or product-group standards. This document is

not intended to be applied to generate product-specific information.

NOTE 3 Product-group, as used in this document, is an umbrella term used to refer to a group of products with

similar properties and primary function(s).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12973:2000, Value management

EN 45559, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-related

products
EN 62308:2006, Equipment reliability - Reliability assessment methods
EN 62506:2013, Methods for product accelerated testing

EN 60812, Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis

(FMEA)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
Note 1 to entry: See CLC/prTR 45550 for additional definitions.
3.1 General definitions
3.1.1 Terms related to reliability and durability
3.1.1.1
durability
< of a part or a product >

ability to function as required, under defined conditions of use, maintenance and repair, until a limiting

state is reached
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)

Note 1 to entry: The degree to which maintenance and repair are within the scope of durability will vary by

product or product-group.

Note 2 to entry: The user of this document has to define the criteria for the transition from limiting state to end-

of-life (EoL). For more information see Figure D.1.

Note 3 to entry: Durability can be expressed in units appropriate to the part or product concerned, e.g. calendar

time, operating cycles, distance run, etc. The units should always be clearly stated.

3.1.1.2
reliability

probability that a product functions as required under given conditions, including maintenance, for a

given duration without limiting event

Note 1 to entry: The intended function(s) and given conditions are described in the information for use

provided with the product.

Note 2 to entry: Duration can be expressed in units appropriate to the part or product concerned, e.g. calendar

time, operating cycles, distance run, etc. The units should always be clearly stated.

3.1.1.3
limiting event

occurrence which results in a primary or secondary function no longer being delivered

Note 1 to entry: Examples of limiting events are failure, wear-out failure or deviation of any analogue signal.

3.1.1.4
limiting state
condition after one or more limiting event(s)

Note 1 to entry: A limiting state can be changed to a functional state by maintenance or repair of the ErP.

Note 2 to entry: A limiting state can change to EoL-status if maintenance or repair is no longer viable due to

socio-economic or technical reasons.
3.1.1.5
wear-out failure

failure due to cumulative deterioration caused by the stresses imposed in normal use

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence of a wear-out failure typically increases with the accumulated

operating time, number of operations, and/or stress applications.

Note 2 to entry: In some instances, it can be difficult to distinguish between wear-out and ageing phenomena.

[SOURCE: IEV 192-03-15]
3.1.2 Terms related to functions
3.1.2.1
primary function
function fulfilling the intended use
Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one primary function.
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
3.1.2.2
secondary function
function that enables, supplements or enhances the primary function(s)
[SOURCE: EN 62542:2017; 5.14]
3.1.2.3
tertiary function
function other than a primary or a secondary function
[SOURCE: EN 62542:2017; 5.16, modified examples deleted]
3.1.2.4
functional analysis

process that describes the functions of a product and their relationships, which are systematically

characterized, classified and evaluated
3.1.3 Activities related to use
3.1.3.1
normal use

use of a product, including its transport and storage, or a process, in accordance with the provided

information for use or, in the absence of such, in accordance with generally understood patterns of

usage

Note 1 to entry: Normal use should not be confused with intended use. While both include the concept of use as

intended by the manufacturer, intended use focuses on the purpose while normal use incorporates not only the

purpose, but transport and storage as well.
[SOURCE: IEV 871-04-22]
3.1.3.2
intended use

use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in absence of such

information, by generally understood patterns of usage

Note 1 to entry: Intended use should not be confused with normal use. While both include the concept of use as

intended by the manufacturer, intended use focuses on the purpose while normal use incorporates not only the

purpose, but transport and storage as well.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014; 3.6, modified Note 1 to entry added]
3.1.3.3
normal operating conditions

characteristic in operation which may affect performance of the product during intended use

Note 1 to entry: Examples of operating conditions are modified environmental conditions when the product

operates (self-heating, condensation), characteristics of the power supply, duty cycle, load factor, vibration due to

operation.

Note 2 to entry: Given normal operating conditions and defined operating conditions of use, maintenance and

repair, refer to a specified subset of normal operating conditions which are used for the assessments.

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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
3.1.3.4
maintenance

action carried out to retain a product in a condition where it is able to function as required

NOTE 1 to entry Examples of such actions include inspection, adjustments, cleaning, lubrication, testing,

software update and replacement of a wear-out part. Such actions could be performed by users in accordance with

instructions provided with the equipment (e.g. replacement or recharging of batteries); or the actions could be

performed by service personnel in order to ensure that parts with a known time to failure are replaced in order to

keep the product functioning.
3.1.3.5
repair

process of restoring a faulty product to a condition where it can fulfil its intended use

3.1.4 Other terms
3.1.4.1
part
hardware, firmware or software constituent of a product
[SOURCE: EN 45554:2020; 3.2]
3.1.4.2
normal environmental conditions

characteristics of the environment in the immediate vicinity of the product during transport, storage,

use, maintenance and repair, which may affect its performance during normal use

Note 1 to entry: Examples of environmental conditions are pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation,

vibration.

Note 2 to entry: Given normal environmental conditions and defined environmental conditions of transport,

storage, use, maintenance and repair, refer to specified subsets of normal environmental conditions which are

used for the assessments.
3.2 Abbreviations
AF Acceleration Factor
ALT Accelerated Life Test
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF Electromagnetic Fields
ErP energy-related product
EoL end-of-life
FAST Function Analysis System Technique
FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
FMECA Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis
FTA Fault Tree Analysis
HASA Highly Accelerated Stress Audit
HALT Highly Accelerated Life Test
HASS Highly Accelerated Stress Screen
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light Emitting Diode
MTBF Mean Operating Time Between Failures
MTTF Mean Operating Time To Failure
MTTFF Mean Operating Time To First Failure
PCB Printed Circuit Board
TTF Time to Failure
4 Concept and process overview
4.1 Concept
4.1.1 General

This subclause explains the concepts relevant to both reliability and durability. Reliability is defined in

3.1.1.2 and durability in 3.1.1.1. The relation between reliability and durability is also depicted in

Figure D.1 of Annex D.

There are some key concepts to consider when addressing durability. Durability can be limited by the

fatigue/ageing of a part, which can cause a limiting event. A limiting event occurs when a primary or

secondary function is no longer delivered. This results in the product being in a limiting state.

There are also some key concepts to consider when addressing reliability. To assess reliability, the time

at which a certain percentage of products has reached a limiting state is used (e.g. the time by which an

accumulated X % of a population will fail (B), where X is expressed in orders of magnitude of 10 such as

0,1, 1, 10 for respectively B0,1, B1 or B10). However, other reliability assessments such as mean

operating time to failure (MTTF), mean operating time to first failure (MTTFF) and mean operating time

between failures (MTBF) are also used. The reliability assessment between the first use of the product

and the first limiting event does not take repair into account. Whilst the reliability assessment between

two consecutive limiting events takes into account the effects of a previous repair action, such cases are

not covered in this document.

NOTE 1 MTTF, MTTFF and MTBF are measures of constant risk and therefore, they do not give the expected

time to failure. In the case of a non-repairable product, MTTFF equals MTTF. For products with an exponential

distribution of operating times to failure (i.e. a constant failure rate), MTTF is numerically equal to the reciprocal (

) of the failure rate. Mean operating time between failures can only be applied to repairable products.

failure rate

NOTE 2 Reliability and durability are defined in standardization and are relevant methods to estimate the

technical lifetime of a product. Whilst “Minimum Lifetime” can be specified, this requires a wider consideration

than reliability and durability assessment, as it could include additional aspects such as economic, social or

regulatory requirements.

Durability can be expressed in units like calendar time, the number of operating cycles, distance, etc.

Reliability can be expressed as a unit combined with a probability (see example below). The user of this

document shall specify the most appropriate units for expressing reliability and durability.

EXAMPLE Durability could be 7 years for which a car is able to operate under defined environmental

conditions and operating conditions (20 000 km/year). If the car is used under different operating conditions

(28 000 km/year), the expected durability could be 5 years. This assumes that all parts are able to withstand the

defined conditions. A car operates with a reliability R(t1, t2) > 0,9 (90 %) where t1 and t2 could be respectively

0 km and 100 000 km, under defined environmental and operating conditions.
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SIST EN 45552:2020
EN 45552:2020 (E)

NOTE 3 A car, although not falling under the definition of an ErP, has been chosen as the example product for

ease of understanding.
4.1.2 Difference between reliability and durability

The user of this document shall specify requirements for the assessment procedures for reliability,

durability, or both.

The terms reliability and durability convey similar concepts but have distinct and separate meanings,

which are described in this section. At the simplest level, reliability and durability are both concerned

with the ability to function as required under certain conditions until a limiting state (see 4.1.4) is

reached. Both reliability and durability expect that maintenance will be undertaken as applicable to the

product (by the user/a professional service provider), to retain the product in a condition where it is

able to function as required. If appropriate, the user of this document should set parameters concerning

maintenance and expected conditions of use, for example by requiring information to be provided by

the manufacturer in the information of use.

Durability can be considered to be the most likely maximum normal use of a product until the transition

from a limiting state to EoL. It considers the ability to function as required, under defined conditions of

use, maintenance and repair. When the ErPs are repairable, durability includes the possibility of

extending the use-phase by one or multiple repairs, potentially involving different parts, to return the

ErPs to a functional state. In this case, the number of repair actions to be considered for the durability

assessment method shall be defined. Requirements for assessing durability are given in Clause 7.

NOTE In terms of circular economy, the lifetime of the materials, parts, or ErPs could be further extended by

reuse, update, upgrade, refurbishing, remanufacturing and recycling.

In the context of this document, reliability does not include repair actions, as considering these can lead

to a complex and non-comparable assessment of similar products. The reliability of a product is directly

related to its probability of failure under given normal environmental and operating conditions

(examples are available in EN 61703:2016). Requirements for assessing reliability are given in Clause 6.

A durability assessment and a reliability assessment can be applied to both ErPs as a whole and parts of

those ErPs.
EXAMPLE A representative samp
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Splošna metoda za oceno trajnosti izdelkov, povezanih z energijoAllgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Lebensdauer energieverbrauchsrelevanter ProdukteMéthode générale pour l'évaluation de la durabilité des produits liés à l'énergieGeneral method for the assessment of the durability of energy-related products13.020.20Okoljska ekonomija. TrajnostnostEnvironmental economics. SustainabilityICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:prEN 45552oSIST prEN 45552:2019en,fr,de01-januar-2019oSIST prEN 45552:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
oSIST prEN 45552:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
DRAFT prEN 45552
October
t r s z ICS
s uä r t rä t r
English version
General method for the assessment of the durability of energyærelated products

Méthode générale pour l 5évaluation de la durabilité des produits liés à l 5énergie

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Lebensdauer energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiryä It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

If this draft becomes a European Standardá CEN and CENELEC membRegulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELECversion in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

Recipients of this draft are invited to submitá with their commentsá notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentationäRecipients of this draft are invited to submitá with their commentsá notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentationä

Warning ã This document is not a European Standardä It is distributed for review and commentsä It is subject to change without notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standardä CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels y any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC Membersä Refä Noä prEN

v w w w tã t r s z EoSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page 1 European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 2 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 3 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 4 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 5 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 6 4 Concept and process overview ................................................................................................................... 9 7 4.1 Concept ............................................................................................................................................................... 9 8 4.2 Process overview and guidance ................................................................................................................. 9 9 5 Definition of the Product ........................................................................................................................... 10 10 5.1 Functional analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 10 11 5.2 Environmental and operating conditions ........................................................................................... 11 12 5.3 Additional information .............................................................................................................................. 11 13 6 Reliability ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 14 6.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 12 15 6.2 Reliability analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 12 16 6.3 Validation method ....................................................................................................................................... 12 17 6.4 Summary of outputs of the reliability analysis ................................................................................. 13 18 7 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 19 7.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 13 20 7.2 Durability analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 14 21 7.3 Validation method ....................................................................................................................................... 14 22 7.4 Summary of outputs of the durability analysis ................................................................................. 15 23 8 Reporting reliability and durability aspects ...................................................................................... 15 24 8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 15 25 8.2 Elements of the assessment report ........................................................................................................ 15 26 Annex A (informative)

Additional details on durability and reliability analysis .............................. 17 27 A.1 Environmental and operating conditions ........................................................................................... 17 28 A.2 Stress analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 18 29 A.3 Damage modelling ....................................................................................................................................... 19 30 A.4 Acceleration factors (AF) ........................................................................................................................... 19 31 Annex B (informative)

Additional details on test development .............................................................. 23 32 B.1 Stress modelling ........................................................................................................................................... 23 33 B.2 Accelerated tests .......................................................................................................................................... 23 34 Annex C (informative)

Maintanance and repair considerations for an increased reliability 35 and durability ................................................................................................................................................ 25 36 C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25 37 C.2 Wear-out parts and spare parts considerations ............................................................................... 26 38 Annex D (informative)

Additional details on limiting event and limiting state ................................. 27 39 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 3 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 28 40

41 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 4 European foreword 42 This document (prEN 45552:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 10 43 “Energy-related products - Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held by 44 NEN/NEC. 45 This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry. 46 The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 – 45559, 47 have been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are 48 intended to potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Energy-related Products (ErP) 49 Directive (2009/125/EC). 50 Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency 51 aspects: 52 a) Extending product lifetime; 53 b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life; 54 c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products 55 These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts, 56 terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product-specific or 57 product group standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees. 58 The present standard is intended to be used by product technical committees when producing product 59 specific or product group standards. 60 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 5 Introduction 61 As Energy-related Products (ErP) can often not be completely recycled and the benefits associated with 62 material recovery cannot fully compensate the energy (and material) demand of the whole production 63 chain, each disposed ErP also means losses in energy and materials. Therefore, increasing durability of 64 ErPs can contribute to reduce the material and energy demand and related environmental impacts. 65 When considering durability, the trade-off between longer lifetime (reducing impacts related to the 66 manufacturing and disposal of the product) and reduced environmental impacts of new products 67 compared to worse and/or decreasing energy efficiency of older products needs to be considered. 68 Considerations such as these are addressed in the preparatory studies commissioned under Directive 69 2009/125/EC. Whilst such aspects establish a relevant context for this standard, they are not addressed 70 in this document. 71 This standard covers a general method for the assessment of the durability of ErPs. To cover the whole 72 lifetime of a product, the generic standards on “Ability to repair, reuse and upgrade – 73 CLC/prEN 45554:2019”, “Ability to re-manufacture – CLC/prEN 45553:2019”, (bothcurrently under 74 preparation) or similar standards can be taken into consideration. 75 This document describes general assessment approaches that can be adapted for application at a 76 product-specific level In order to assess the durability of ErP. Reliability is an element of durability, 77 representing the assessment of the time from first use to first failure or in-between failures, whilst 78 durability is the whole assessment from production to end of life. 79 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope 80 This document defines parameters and methods as a framework in order to assess the durability of ErP. 81 It is intended to be used in preparation of product-specific standardization deliverables on durability 82 assessment. 83 2 Normative references 84 The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content 85 constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For 86 undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. 87 EN 12973:2000, Value management 88 CLC/prEN 45559, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-89 related products 90 EN 62308:2006, Equipment reliability - Reliability assessment methods 91 EN 62506:2013, Methods for product accelerated testing 92 EN 60812, Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis 93 (FMEA) 94 3 Terms and definitions 95 For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 96 ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses: 97

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/ 98

ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 99 Note 1 to entry: See CLC/prTR 45550 for additional definitions. 100 3.1 101 durability 102 durability 103 ability to function as required, under defined conditions of use, maintenance and repair, until a final 104 limiting state is reached 105 Note 1 to entry: The degree to which maintenance and repair are within scope of durability will vary by product 106 or product group. 107 Note 2 to entry: The final limiting state has to be defined by the user of this document. For more information 108 see Figure D.1. 109 3.2 110 limiting event 111 event which results in a primary or secondary function no longer being delivered 112 Note 1 to entry: Examples of limiting events are failure, wear-out failure or deviation of any analogue signal. 113 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 7 3.3 114 limiting state 115 condition after one or more limiting event 116 3.4 117 maintenance 118 action carried out to retain a product in a condition where it is able to function as required 119 Note 1 to entry: Examples of such actions include inspection, adjustments, cleaning, lubrication, testing, and 120 replacement of wear-out part. Such actions could be performed by users in accordance with instructions provided 121 with the equipment (e.g. replacement or recharging of batteries); or the actions could be performed by service 122 personnel in order to ensure that parts with a known time to failure are replaced in order to keep the product 123 functioning. 124 3.5 125 reliability 126 probability that a product functions as required under given conditions, including maintenance, for a 127 given duration without failure 128 Note 1 to entry: The intended function(s) and given conditions are described in the user instructions provided 129 with the product. 130 Note 2 to entry: Duration can be expressed in units appropriate to the part or product concerned, e.g. calendar 131 time, operating cycles, distance run, etc., and the units should always be clearly stated 132 3.6 133 primary function 134 function fulfilling the intended use 135 Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one primary function. 136 3.7 137 secondary function 138 function that enables, supplements or enhances the primary function(s) 139 [SOURCE: EN 62542:2017; 5.14,] 140 3.8 141 tertiary function 142 function other than a primary or a secondary function 143 [SOURCE: EN 62542:2017; 5.16, modified examples deleted] 144 3.9 145 functional analysis 146 process that describes the functions of a product and their relationships, which are systematically 147 characterised, classified and evaluated 148 3.10 149 normal environmental conditions 150 characteristics of the environment in the immediate vicinity of the product during transport, storage, 151 use, maintenance and repair life phases, which may affect its performance during normal use 152 Note 1 to entry: Examples of environmental conditions are pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation, 153 vibration. 154 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 8 Note 2 to entry: Given normal environmental conditions and defined environmental conditions of transport, 155 storage, use, maintenance and repair, refer to a specified subset of normal environmental conditions which are 156 used for the assessments. 157 3.11 158 normal use 159 use of a product, including its transport and storage, or a process, in accordance with the provided 160 information for use or, in the absence of such, in accordance with generally understood patterns of 161 usage 162 Note 1 to entry: Normal use should not be confused with intended use. While both include the concept of use as 163 intended by the manufacturer, intended use focuses on the purpose while normal use incorporates not only the 164 purpose, but transport and storage as well 165 [SOURCE: IEV 871-04-22] 166 3.12 167 normal operating conditions 168 characteristic in operation which may affect performance of the product during intended use 169 Note 1 to entry: Examples of operating conditions are, modified environmental conditions when the product 170 operates (Self-heating, condensation), characteristics of the power supply, duty cycle, load factor, vibration due to 171 operation. 172 Note 2 to entry: Given normal operating conditions and defined operating conditions of use, maintenance and 173 repair, refer to a specified subset of normal operating conditions which are used for the assessments. 174 3.13 175 intended use 176 use in accordance with information provided with a product or system, or, in absence of such 177 information, by generally understood patterns of usage 178 Note 1 to entry: Intended use should not be confused with normal use. While both include the concept of use as 179 intended by the manufacturer, intended use focuses on the purpose while normal use incorporates not only the 180 purpose, but transport and storage as well. 181 [SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014; 3.6, modified Note 1 to entry added] 182 3.14 183 wear-out failure 184 failure due to cumulative deterioration caused by the stresses imposed in use 185 Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence of a wear-out failure typically increases with the accumulated 186 operating time, number of operations, and/or stress applications. 187 Note 2 to entry: In some instances, it may be difficult to distinguish between wear-out and ageing phenomena. 188 [SOURCE: IEV 192-03-15] 189 3.15 190 repair 191 process of returning a faulty product to a condition where it can fulfil its intended use (3.13) 192 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 9 3.16 193 part 194 hardware or software constituent of a product 195 [SOURCE: CLC/prEN 45554; 3.2] 196 4 Concept and process overview 197 4.1 Concept 198 There are some key concepts to consider when addressing durability. The durability can be limited by 199 fatigue/ageing of a part, which can cause a limiting event. A limiting event occurs when a primary or 200 secondary function is no longer delivered. This results in the product being in a limiting state. The 201 durability assessment can take into account a number of maintenance and repair actions. The 202 maintenance and repair actions shall be included in the given normal environmental and operating 203 conditions. Durability is usually expressed as time, number of cycles or distance. 204 The reliability of a product is directly related to its probability of failure or its failure rate (examples are 205 available in EN 61703:2016) under given normal environmental and operating conditions. When 206 carrying out a reliability assessment, the statistical distribution of limiting events is considered. 207 The time at which a certain percentage of products have reached a limiting state (e.g. time by which 208 10 % will fail) is used to assess and compare the time to a limiting event. However, other reliability 209 assessments such as mean time to failure (MTTF), mean time to first failure (MTTFF) and mean time 210 between failures (MTBF) are also used. The reliability assessment between the first use of the product 211 and the first limiting event does not take repair into account. However, the reliability assessment 212 between two consecutive limiting events takes into account the effects of a previous repair. 213 NOTE Reliability and durability are defined in the standardization framework and are relevant methods to 214 estimate the technical lifetime of a product. Whilst “Minimum Lifetime” can be specified this requires a wider 215 consideration than reliability and durability assessment, as it could include additional aspects such as economic, 216 social or regulatory requirements. 217 4.2 Process overview and guidance 218 The users of this document shall specify the product group in terms of functions and, if applicable, in 219 accordance with relevant product group standards (see subclause 5.1). 220 The users of this document shall use the results of the functional analysis (see subclause 5.1), 221 environmental and operating conditions (see subclause 5.2) and additional input data (see subclause 222 subclause 5.3) in order to conduct a product group specific reliability analysis developed for a product 223 group (see subclause 6.2). The result is a rank-ordered list of functions and parts providing the 224 functions linked to 225 — failure modes, 226 — failure sites, and 227 — failure frequencies. 228 Consecutively, the reliability of the functions/parts should be validated by either existing methods or 229 methods which have to be developed (see subclause 6.3). In succession, the reliability of the product 230 should be validated (see subclause 6.4). These can then be used for conformity assessment of individual 231 products in the respective product group. 232 NOTE 1 Product group, as used in this document, refers as an umbrella term to a group of products with similar 233 properties and main function(s). 234 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 10 NOTE 2 Software and/or firmware are also considered as part. 235 For the durability analysis of a product group (see subclause 7.3), the user of this document shall take 236 into account among others, repair considerations, special environmental conditions and misuse (see 237 subclause 7.2). Consecutively, the durability of the product should be validated (see subclause 7.4). 238 Results of the reliability and durability analysis may be reported according to Clause 8. 239 Figure 1 illustrates the key stages and the information required for an assessment of the reliability and 240 durability. The user of this document shall use the standard in accordance to it. 241

242 Figure 1 — General reliability and durability assessment procedure 243 5 Definition of the Product 244 5.1 Functional analysis 245 The product group being addressed shall be defined in terms of functions. Functional analysis is a 246 process that results in a comprehensive description of the functions and their relationships, which are 247 systematically characterized and classified. Any complete functional analysis enables a detailed 248 understanding regarding the product characteristics, how the functionality can be achieved embedding 249 constraints coming from regulatory framework (such as EMC). Functional analysis in accordance with 250 EN 12973:2000 A.1.2 or equivalent should be applied to determine all functions of the product group 251 during its lifecycle. Functional analysis is a restricted data in accordance with CLC/prEN 45559. 252 NOTE However focusing to the assessment method of durability the scope of the functional analysis might 253 cover only transportation, storage, use, maintenance and repair phases. As example of functional analysis, the 254 FAST methodology could be applied (EN 12973:2000; A.1.2.2.3.c) to assess an existing product or to design a 255 product. 256 There are three types of functions: 257 — primary function(s); 258 — secondary function(s); 259 — tertiary function(s). 260 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 11 The user of this document shall select functions which are representative for the majority of the 261 products of a product group as input to the reliability analysis described in subclause 6.2 and durability 262 analysis described in subclause 7.2. The user of this document shall identify those parts of the products 263 that are involved in providing a specific secondary function. If a specific function can be achieved by 264 different technologies, each technology shall be assessed individually. 265 5.2 Environmental and operating conditions 266 The given normal environmental and operating conditions are a set of parameters reflecting the 267 expected application and use patterns. The user of this document shall define these parameters for the 268 respective product group. Examples of environmental and operational conditions are given in 269 Annex A.1. 270 5.3 Additional information 271 Apart from the selected functions (see subclause 5.1) and the given normal environmental and 272 operating conditions (see subclause 5.2), additional information is needed to conduct a reliability and 273 durability analysis. Information shall be representative in terms of geographical, time-related and 274 technological coverage. 275 The following sources of information related to failures can be considered as input for the reliability 276 and durability analysis: 277 — Experience from past or current products; 278 — Field data; 279 — Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), see A.3, and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), see EN 61025; 280 — Manufacturers constraints; 281 — Regulations; 282 — Stress analysis (see Annex A.2) and Damage modelling (see A.4); 283 — Test results already available; 284 — Consumers expectations; 285 — Risk assessment. 286 FMEA shall be in accordance with EN 60812. It shall include any foreseeable misuse and limiting events. 287 NOTE 1 Information on limiting events and states can be found in Annex D. 288 In order to evaluate the product in relation to all input parameters, data collection and analysis is 289 necessary. Existing testing data may include parts level tests under several conditions and with several 290 samples. This data may also include information on misuses and failures from past or current 291 operations experience, field experience, consumer expectations, manufacturer’s constraints and 292 regulations, as well as risk assessments. 293 Additional considerations affecting the reliability (e.g. MTBF) and durability assessments are as follows: 294 — Repair, reuse and upgrade considerations (see CLC/prEN 45554 or similar standard and C.1); 295 — Refurbishment considerations. 296 oSIST prEN 45552:2019

prEN 45552:2018 (E) 12 NOTE 2 Reliability data on electronic parts contained within the product can be available within published 297 reliability handbooks (See IEC/TR 62380 or similar standard). 298 6 Reliability 299 6.1 General considerations 300 For the purpose of conducting reliability analysis, given normal environmental and operating 301 conditions shall be considered. The analysis links functions to failure modes and failure sites. The result 302 of the analysis may be expressed as failure rate, probability of failure or survival, or time to failure 303 (TTF). The failure mechanisms likely to be experienced by the product will determine which of the 304 reliability criteria is appropriate and relevant. These shall be followed by an analysis of parts 305 responsible for causing the respective failures as described in subclause 6.2, leading to a ranked list. 306 The results of subclause 6.2 shall be used to identify or develop a validation method according to 307 subclause 6.3. The procedure described in this paragraph shall be repeated if design or input data have 308 been modified. 309 6.2 Reliability analysis 310 The reliability method shall take into account each function selected in subclause 5.1 according to 311 EN 62308:2006 or similar standards. This analysis should consider additional information (see 312 subclause 5.3). The user of this document shall specify what constitutes a failure within the product 313 group in the intended application. 314 The analysis allows the identification of the failure mode, the location(s) of the failure and the parts 315 which are involved in the failure for each analysed function. An FMEA or similar analysis shall be 316 conducted (see A.3). The user of this document shall establish the results as a list of failure sites, 317 mechanisms, and modes. Failure modes affecting selected functions should be listed and ranked 318 according to likelihood. The failures most likely to occur affecting selected functions shall be 319 determined and the related parts identified. 320 Users of this document shall state, if applicable (e.g. MTBF), in which way and to which extent repair 321 and refurbishment is considered for the respective product group. 322 6.3 Validation method 323 The purpose of the validation is to determine the reliability of a product and to establish, if applicable, 324 measurement methods for testing or accelerated testing of a defined set of functions or parts of a 325 product for a product group selected in subclause 5.2. 326 NOTE 1 On accelerated testing see also Annex B.2 for further information. 327 In general, preference shall be given to existing methods. However, the user of this document shall 328 ensure that these methods are appropriate or check if they need to be adap

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