Electronic components - Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices - Part 3: Data

IEC 62435-3:2020 describes the aspects of data storage that are necessary for successful use of electronic components being stored after long periods while maintaining traceability or chain of custody. It defines what sort of data needs to be stored alongside the components or dies and the best way to do so in order to avoid losing data during the storage period. As defined in this document, long-term storage refers to a duration that can be more than twelve months for products scheduled for long duration storage. Philosophy, good working practice, and general means to facilitate the successful long-term-storage of electronic components are also addressed.
NOTE: In IEC 62435 (all parts), the term "components" is used interchangeably with dice, wafers, passives and packaged devices.

Composants électroniques - Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs électroniques à semiconducteurs - Partie 3 : Données

L'IEC 62435-3:2020 décrit les aspects du stockage de données nécessaires à la bonne utilisation des composants électroniques stockés après de longues périodes, tout en maintenant une traçabilité ou une continuité de possession. Elle définit les types de données à stocker avec les composants ou les puces et la meilleure façon de le faire en vue d'éviter une perte de données pendant la période de stockage. Comme défini dans le présent document, le stockage de longue durée fait référence à une durée pouvant dépasser douze mois, pour des produits destinés à être stockés pendant une longue durée. Les concepts, les bonnes pratiques et les moyens généraux de nature à faciliter la réussite d'un stockage de longue durée de composants électroniques sont aussi abordés.
NOTE: Dans l'IEC 62435 (toutes les parties), le terme "composants" fait référence aux puces, aux plaquettes et aux dispositifs passifs et encapsulés.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Feb-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Feb-2020
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IEC 62435-3
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Electronic components – Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor
devices –
Part 3: Data
Composants électroniques – Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs
électroniques à semiconducteurs –
Partie 3: Données
IEC 62435-3:2020-02(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62435-3
Edition 1.0 2020-02
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Electronic components – Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor
devices –
Part 3: Data
Composants électroniques – Stockage de longue durée des dispositifs
électroniques à semiconducteurs –
Partie 3: Données
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.020 ISBN 978-2-8322-7889-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Data storage .................................................................................................................... 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Data storage options ............................................................................................... 8

4.3 Paper data storage concerns .................................................................................. 8

4.4 Electronic data storage concerns ............................................................................ 8

4.5 Data storage media failure mode considerations ..................................................... 9

4.6 Media reader and decoding ..................................................................................... 9

4.7 Computer .............................................................................................................. 10

4.8 Software and data format ...................................................................................... 10

5 Data elements ............................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General data element considerations .................................................................... 10

5.2 Traceability data ................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Periodic checks of data ......................................................................................... 11

5.4 Component description data package ................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) Example checklist for project managers ............................................ 12

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 13

Table A.1 – Example checklist for data management ............................................................ 12

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS – LONG-TERM STORAGE
OF ELECTRONIC SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 3: Data
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 62435-3 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 47:

Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47/2608/FDIS 47/2615/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020

A list of all parts in the IEC 62435 series, published under the general title Electronic

components – Long-term storage of electronic semiconductor devices, can be found on the

IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION
This document applies to the long-term storage of electronic components.

This document deals with the long-term storage (LTS) of electronic devices drawing on the

best long-term storage practices currently known. For the purposes of this document, LTS is

defined as any device storage whose duration can be more than 12 months for product

scheduled for long duration storage. While intended to address the storage of unpackaged

semiconductors and packaged electronic devices, nothing in this document precludes the

storage of other items under the storage levels defined herein.

Although it has always existed to some extent, obsolescence of electronic components and

particularly of integrated circuits, has become increasingly intense over the last few years.

Indeed, with the existing technological boom, the commercial life of a component has become

very short compared with the life of industrial equipment such as that encountered in the

aeronautical field, the railway industry or the energy sector.

The many solutions enabling obsolescence to be resolved are now identified. However,

selecting one of these solutions should be preceded by a case-by-case technical and

economic feasibility study, depending on whether storage is envisaged for field service or

production, for example:
• remedial storage as soon as components are no longer marketed;
• preventive storage anticipating declaration of obsolescence.

Taking into account the expected life of some installations, sometimes covering several

decades, the qualification times, and the unavailability costs, which can also be very high, the

solution to be adopted to resolve obsolescence should often be rapidly implemented. This is

why the solution retained in most cases consists in systematically storing components which

are in the process of becoming obsolescent.

The technical risks of this solution are, a priori, fairly low. However, it requires perfect mastery

of the implemented process and especially of the storage environment, although this mastery

becomes critical when it comes to long-term storage.

All handling, protection, storage and test operations are recommended to be performed

according to the state of the art.

The application of the approach proposed in this document in no way guarantees that the

stored components are in perfect operating condition at the end of this storage. It only

comprises a means of minimizing potential and probable degradation factors.

Some electronic device users have the need to store electronic devices for long periods of

time. Lifetime buys are commonly made to support production runs of assemblies that well

exceed the production timeframe of its individual parts. This puts the user in a situation

requiring careful and adequate storage of such parts to maintain the as-received solderability

and minimize any degradation effects to the part over time. Major degradation concerns are

moisture, electrostatic fields, ultra-violet light, large variations in temperature, air-borne

contaminants, and outgassing.

Warranties and sparing also present a challenge for the user or repair agency as some

systems have been designated to be used for long periods of time, in some cases for up to

40 years or more. Some of the devices needed for repair of these systems will not be

available from the original supplier for the lifetime of the system or the spare assembly may

be built with the original production run but then require long-term storage. This document

was developed to provide a standard for storing electronic devices for long periods of time.

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020

The storage of devices that are moisture sensitive but that do not need to be stored for long

periods of time is dealt with in IEC TR 62258-3.

Long-term storage assumes that the device is going to be placed in uninterrupted storage for

a number of years. It is essential that it be useable after storage. It is important that storage

media, the local environment and the associated part data be considered together.

These guidelines do not imply any warranty of product or guarantee of operation beyond the

storage time given by the manufacturer.

The IEC 62435 series is intended to ensure that adequate reliability is achieved for devices in

user applications after long-term storage. Users are encouraged to request data from

suppliers to applicable specifications to demonstrate a successful storage life as requested by

the user. These standards are not intended to address built-in failure mechanisms that would

take place regardless of storage conditions.

These standards are intended to give practical guide to methods of long-duration storage of

electronic components where this is intentional or planned storage of product for a number of

years. Storage regimes for work-in-progress production are managed according to company

internal process requirements and are not detailed in IEC 62435 (all parts).

The overall standard is split into a number of parts. Parts 1 to 4 apply to any long-term

storage and contain general requirements and guidance, whereas Parts 5 to 9 are specific to

the type of product being stored.

Electronic components requiring different storage conditions are covered separately starting

with Part 5.

The structure of the IEC 62435 series as currently planned consists of the following:

– Part 1: General
– Part 2: Deterioration mechanisms
– Part 3: Data
– Part 4: Storage
– Part 5: Die and wafer devices
– Part 6: Packaged or finished devices
– Part 7: MEMS
– Part 8: Passive electronic devices
– Part 9: Special cases
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS – LONG-TERM STORAGE
OF ELECTRONIC SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 3: Data
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62435 describes the aspects of data storage that are necessary for

successful use of electronic components being stored after long periods while maintaining

traceability or chain of custody. It defines what sort of data needs to be stored alongside the

components or dies and the best way to do so in order to avoid losing data during the storage

period. As defined in this document, long-term storage refers to a duration that can be more

than twelve months for products scheduled for long duration storage. Philosophy, good

working practice, and general means to facilitate the successful long-term-storage of

electronic components are also addressed.

NOTE In IEC 62435 (all parts), the term "components" is used interchangeably with dice, wafers, passives and

packaged devices.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
long-term storage
LTS

planned storage of components to extend the lifecycle for a duration with the intention of

supporting future use

Note 1 to entry: Allowable storage durations will vary by form factor (e.g. packing materials, shape) and storage

conditions. In general, long-term storage is longer than 12 months.
Note 2 to entry: This note applies to the French language only.
[SOURCE: IEC 62435-1:2017, 3.1.2]
4 Data storage
4.1 General

Data associated with the electronic components that are stored shall itself be stored securely

without degradation in order to be available when required during the entire storage period or

longer, if specified. Data not currently required may be archived for future use and

reassessment.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020

The data archive is generally stored on any medium, which may include non-volatile memory,

optical disk or storage in redundant array disk servers. It is important to ensure the

environment for media storage is low risk for degradation, and accidental or random events

that could destroy or corrupt the data. The value of the parts is highly dependent upon the

data without which the company might cease to function. See Table A.1 for critical data

storage considerations. The physical and cyber security of the archive store are not

mentioned further here, but should be a main consideration when planning its location and

access.
4.2 Data storage options

From the early 1960s onwards, media for storing data other than paper, have historically

evolved towards magnetic, optical and other forms of solid-state media. It is common practice

to ensure redundancy of storage within storage servers, across physical sites and

geographies. Redundant array storage enables periodic back-up copies and checks to ensure

longevity. Some printed data is effectively undecipherable without computer assistance (such

as bar codes or matrix marks). It is conceivable to store enough information in the optical

markings to satisfy business requirements for traceability. Similarly, printed data may be

recovered from paper or from the part using optical character recognition and associated

software. Other legacy storage media, such as microfiche, can also be in use.
4.3 Paper data storage concerns

Paper storage with the components being stored is subject to many hazards that can be

mitigated with regular intervention. Data and information stored on paper can be corrupted by

aging of ink, moisture or water exposure or simple loss of the physical paper record and/or it's

facsimile. It is recommended that the stored paper be acid free to minimize the risk of brittle

degradation. The permanence of the printed mark on the archival paper should also be

considered for long-term storage of paper with components.
4.4 Electronic data storage concerns

Careful selection of the electronic medium is required, as there are many hazards in relying

on this media that are not instantly apparent. It shall be remembered that data to be archived

shall be retrievable, otherwise the purpose of archiving is negated. Data redundancy can be

achieved by redundant array of independent disks (RAID) at a local or remote network host.

Similarly redundant optical storage may also be used for network storage. Third party "data

storage"/"data warehouse" companies exist, and these are often used as a suitable secondary

location backup and repository for critical or sensitive data.

Data security should be considered in any storage scheme to avoid loss of data upon

retrieval, storage itself or during decoding. Data security measures should be in place upon

data recording on the systems used to generate and store the data. Data to be stored should

be checked prior to storage. Finally, upon retrieval, data extraction equipment should employ

data security measures in additional to ensuring that older data formats are not
miscategorised as unsafe for security.

All electronic data requires the use of a computer of some sort or another device to retrieve

the data and possibly convert it into a human-readable or machine-useable format. Storage

relies on four main precepts to recover this data:
• the useable lifetime of the media itself;
• the presence of the specific media-reading hardware;
• the associated computer;
• the interpreting and display/application software.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
4.5 Data storage media failure mode considerations

Storage media preservation or maintenance is as important as physical part storage to

maintain the ability to re-establish provenance, design or test parameters or performance

when the components are to be used. When considering magnetic media, such as tapes and

disks, it is well known that the long-term storage of magnetic media has its own attendant

issues, such as oxide-shedding and magnetic "punch-through" in as little as 5 years. Platter

disks are generally less susceptible, but "punch-through" can still occur, and head-dust,

caused by deterioration of the ferric-oxide bonding agent, can lead to irreparable damage to

both the platter and read heads as soon as the platter is mounted. Network-attached storage

and RAID schemes are used to mitigate the risks for the storage of drives.

Floppy disks are susceptible to mechanical and magnetic damage. Optical media, such as the

compact disk (CD) and the digital versatile disk (DVD), can also present problems. CD-Rs that

are written by the average computer have a distinct shelf life, and, dependent upon the

storage ambience can lose data in 18 months or less; the quality of the initial CD-R or CD-RW

media is paramount.

Shedding of the reflective aluminised coating and delamination can also occur, and the

sensitivity to UV light and certain cleaning chemicals is well documented. There are other

electronic storage mechanisms, such as holographic storage, ferro-optical disks.

Paper storage has concerns of bulk, weight and flammability, coupled with the vulnerability to

damage from water, chemical degradation and fire. Paper de-acidification technology is in

regular use in relation to the preservation of many of our important historical documents.

Despite known issues, some forms of paper will continue to have a valuable place and be

used for a long time.

Non-volatile flash memory solutions with redundancy are another medium for data storage

that can have its own issues. Primarily, the program-erase cycles shall be controlled while

ensuring re-use of media is not near the end of its endurance lifetime. Network attached

storage and control software shall maintain data integrity. Local environmental temperature,

field and radiation exposure can also result in error or data loss.

Online or data warehouses that use redundant array disks pose their own challenges. Care

should be taken to mitigate random error while ensuring redundancy protocols are
maintained.
4.6 Media reader and decoding

This is often the most critical item, as even if the data remains intact upon the storage media,

the function of the media reader and the conversion to useable information cannot be

ensured. Data formats change, sometimes rapidly, due in part to the need for increased

storage density and retrieval speed. Data media readers and decoders should be selected

with storage, back-up and the extended duration and storage duration in mind. Standalone

media recording devices and media readers/decoders should be afforded the same storage

consideration as components and they should be tested periodically to ensure they are in

working order.

Integral with the reader is the native format of the data and operational commands, such that

many drives will not function without the appropriate software functions. Specialised driver

software is, therefore, required to operate the reader. Data media and reader/decoder should

be selected for the expected long-term storage duration.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 62435-3:2020 © IEC 2020
4.7 Computer

The computer or data storage systems should be compatible with the media reader hardware

to perform the decoding and possible data conversion. Compatibility with decoding hardware

should be considered when periodic software patches, driver updates, operating system

updates or firmware updates are applied. The complete system and the associated data

operations should be tested periodically to ensure they are in working order.
4.8 Software and data format

Software and data formats are often a hidden pitfall, as even if a new computer and hardware

can be retrofitted to extract the data from the archive media, it cannot be ensured that the

data will be understandable without some additional conversion software. Data character

formats, such as EBDIC, TRASCII, CSV (comma-separated variable) or XML (extensible

mark-up language) formats, require significant re-translation before becoming human-

readable or machine-readable again. Another issue arises because of the different versions of

reader software in
...

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