Information technology -- Home Electronic System (HES) application model

ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020(E), which is a Technical Report, provides a conceptual framework for developing architectures and designing solutions related to transactive energy (TE). Transactive energy allows electricity generated locally by consumers using wind, solar, storage, etc., at homes or buildings to be sold into a competitive market. This document provides guidance for enhancing interoperability among distributed energy resources involved in energy management systems at homes and buildings. It addresses gaps identified as problematic for the industry by providing definitions of terms, architectural principles and guidelines, and other descriptive elements that present a common ground for all interested parties to discuss and advance TE. This document builds upon ISO/IEC 15067-3, with technology to accommodate a market for buying and selling electricity generated centrally or locally by consumers. The energy management agent (EMA) specified in ISO/IEC 15067-3 can represent the customer as a participant in TE. Transactive energy is important for achieving electric grid stability as power from renewable sources such as wind and solar fluctuates with time and weather.

Technologies de l'information -- Modèles d'application du système électronique domotique (HES)

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ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8
Edition 1.0 2020-09
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Information technology – Home electronic system (HES) application model –
Part 3-8: GridWise transactive energy framework
ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020-09(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8
Edition 1.0 2020-09
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Information technology – Home electronic system (HES) application model –
Part 3-8: GridWise transactive energy framework
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-8851-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020
 ISO/IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 10

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 14

5 Context setting .............................................................................................................. 15

5.1 Context for transactive issues ............................................................................... 15

5.2 Report contents and organization .......................................................................... 16

5.3 The problem .......................................................................................................... 16

5.4 Time scales ........................................................................................................... 18

5.5 Economic/market context ....................................................................................... 19

5.6 Grid control systems context .................................................................................. 20

6 Transactive energy ........................................................................................................ 22

6.1 Transition from central power generation .............................................................. 22

6.2 Transactive energy definition ................................................................................. 23

6.3 Transactive energy attributes ................................................................................. 23

6.4 Transactive energy principles ................................................................................ 24

6.5 Evolution of the grid and its effects on transactive energy ....................................... 25

6.6 Strata of transactive energy ................................................................................... 26

7 Framework .................................................................................................................... 27

7.1 The elements of transactive energy ...................................................................... 27

7.2 Policy and market design ....................................................................................... 28

7.3 Business models and value realization ................................................................... 32

7.3.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 32

7.3.2 Overview of DER services and technical capabilities ..................................... 33

7.3.3 DER services and values recognized today ................................................... 35

7.3.4 DER values not yet recognized and quantified ............................................... 39

7.3.5 Transactive markets and peer-to-peer transactions ........................................ 42

7.3.6 Distribution system operator .......................................................................... 42

7.3.7 Distribution system operator models .............................................................. 42

7.3.8 Summary: redefining the value of the grid ...................................................... 44

7.4 Conceptual architecture guidelines ........................................................................ 44

7.4.1 Creating a conceptual architecture ................................................................ 44

7.4.2 Guiding architectural principles ...................................................................... 45

7.4.3 Scope of the conceptual architecture for transactive energy .......................... 46

7.4.4 Organizing paradigms .................................................................................... 47

7.5 Cyber-physical infrastructure ................................................................................. 50

7.5.1 Two cyber-physical networks ......................................................................... 50

7.5.2 Understanding the electricity grid ................................................................... 50

7.5.3 Hierarchy of node levels ................................................................................ 53

7.5.4 Node characteristics and responsibilities ....................................................... 54

7.5.5 Transaction train ............................................................................................ 55

Annex A (informative) Case studies ..................................................................................... 58

A.1 Use of case study template ....................................................................................... 58

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ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020 – 3 –
 ISO/IEC 2020

A.2 Case study template ............................................................................................. 58

A.2.1 Title of the case study.................................................................................... 58

A.2.2 Case study characteristics and objectives ...................................................... 58

A.2.3 Transactive energy attributes ......................................................................... 58

A.2.4 Participating agencies and organizations ....................................................... 60

A.2.5 References for case study ............................................................................. 60

Annex B (informative) Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration ..................................... 61

B.1 Project characteristics and objectives ................................................................... 61

B.2 Transactive energy attributes ................................................................................ 61

B.2.1 Architecture ................................................................................................... 61

B.2.2 Extent ............................................................................................................ 62

B.2.3 Transacting parties ........................................................................................ 62

B.2.4 Transaction .................................................................................................... 62

B.2.5 Transacted commodities ................................................................................ 62

B.2.6 Temporal variability ........................................................................................ 63

B.2.7 Interoperability ............................................................................................... 63

B.2.8 Value discovery mechanisms ......................................................................... 63

B.2.9 Value assignment .......................................................................................... 63

B.2.10 Alignment of objectives .................................................................................. 64

B.2.11 Stability assurance ......................................................................................... 64

B.3 Participating agencies and organizations .............................................................. 64

B.4 References for case study ..................................................................................... 64

Annex C (informative) American Electric Power gridSMART smart grid demonstration ...... 65

C.1 Project characteristics and objectives ................................................................... 65

C.2 Transactive energy attributes ................................................................................ 65

C.2.1 Architecture ................................................................................................... 65

C.2.2 Extent ............................................................................................................ 65

C.2.3 Transacting parties ........................................................................................ 65

C.2.4 Transactions .................................................................................................. 65

C.2.5 Transacted commodities ................................................................................ 66

C.2.6 Temporal variability ........................................................................................ 66

C.2.7 Interoperability ............................................................................................... 66

C.2.8 Value discovery mechanisms ......................................................................... 66

C.2.9 Value assignment .......................................................................................... 67

C.2.10 Alignment of objectives .................................................................................. 67

C.2.11 Stability assurance ......................................................................................... 67

C.3 Participating agencies and organizations............................................................... 67

C.4 References for case study ..................................................................................... 68

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 69

Figure 1 – Overview of GWAC transactive energy reference documents ................................. 9

Figure 2 – A framework provides high-level perspective ........................................................ 16

Figure 3 – Electric power system timelines ........................................................................... 19

Figure 4 – Growing complexity of electric power system control ............................................ 21

Figure 5 – Stages of adoption of DER ................................................................................... 25

Figure 6 – GWAC Stack with strata of transactive energy ..................................................... 26

Figure 7 – Transactive energy stakeholders .......................................................................... 30

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– 4 – ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020
 ISO/IEC 2020

Figure 8 – Services available from DERs .............................................................................. 33

Figure 9 – Architecture layers and iteration levels ................................................................. 45

Figure 10 – The GridWise Architecture Council's interoperability framework ......................... 47

Figure 11 – NIST Smart Grid Conceptual Model .................................................................... 48

Figure 12 – Grid Vision 2050 transactive energy abstraction model ...................................... 49

Figure 13 – Integrated Control Abstraction Stack/GWAC Stack model................................... 49

Figure 14 – Transaction train model ...................................................................................... 56

Table 1 – Characteristics of transactive energy ..................................................................... 23

Table 2 – Challenges faced from interoperability and transactive perspectives ..................... 27

Table 3 – Summary of node characteristics and responsibilities ............................................ 55

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ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020 – 5 –
 ISO/IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (HES) APPLICATION MODEL –
Part 3-8: GridWise transactive energy framework
FOREWORD

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The main task of IEC and ISO technical committees is to prepare International Standards.

However, a technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it

has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International

Standard, for example "state of the art".

ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by subcommittee 25:

Interconnection of information technology equipment, of ISO/IEC joint technical committee 1:

Information technology.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
JTC1-SC25/2944/DTR JTC1-SC25/2965/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.
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– 6 – ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020
 ISO/IEC 2020

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 15067 series, published under the general title Information

technology – Home electronic system (HES) application model, can be found on the IEC and

ISO websites.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020 – 7 –
 ISO/IEC 2020
INTRODUCTION

Over the past two decades, the use of demand response and other flexible distributed

resources for electricity market efficiency and grid reliability has grown dramatically.

Customers' loads, generation, and storage will impact the management of an increasingly

unpredictable power system. Because of this growth in flexible distributed energy resources

deployment, attention is being devoted to addressing not only the economics of the electricity

grid, but also the control system implications for grid reliability. This has led to a focus on an

area of activity called "transactive energy". Transactive energy (TE) refers to the use of a

combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency.

These techniques can also be used to optimize operations within a customer's facility.

The motivations for employing TE systems come from the increasing diversity of resources

and components in the electric power system and the inability of existing practices to

accommodate these changes. Expanded deployment of variable generation on the bulk power

side, distributed energy resources throughout the system, and new intelligent load devices

and appliances on the consumption side necessitate new approaches to how electric power is

managed and delivered, and the associated economic and business models. Conventional

wisdom is that once variable generation resources reach 30 %, the current control systems for

the grid will be simply inadequate [1] .

Transactive energy systems provide a way to maintain the reliability and security of the power

system while increasing efficiency by coordinating the activity of the growing number of

distributed energy resources. These multiple goals pose a multi-objective control and

optimization challenge. This is one reason why TE embraces both the economics and the

engineering of the power system. The same considerations outlined for the electricity grid

apply to building energy systems and other local energy systems such as microgrids [2].

In the past, these systems could be considered simply end nodes on the physical power grid

that act as simple "dumb" loads. But they are becoming increasingly more interactive with the

grid, providing intelligent load, storage, and generation sources. They now need to be

considered integral and active components of the grid as a whole. Building energy systems

account for a majority of the electric power consumed in the United States. For example, the

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated that buildings (residential and

commercial) would account for around 70 % of electricity consumption in the United States in

2014 [3]. Recent EIA data shows that this projection was correct and electricity use in

buildings is currently just over 70 % each year [4]. From the grid perspective, buildings are

examples of loads that will be integral, active components of the end-to-end electric power

system. Within buildings, the same need exists to achieve similar economic and reliably

optimized solutions to manage energy and potentially to realize new revenue streams through

participation in markets related to electric power systems. The growing adoption of electric

vehicles presents a new class of controllable loads, and possibly even generating loads, that

can interact with the grid.

Asset owners, system operators, and other economic entities involved in the generation,

transmission, and use of electric power all have a stake in a reliably efficient power system

envisioned with the use of TE. There is a clear need to align value streams for all of these

parties by using incentives for participation in an actively managed system. This document

describes the considerations and basic elements for all stakeholders. This provides an

opportunity for discussing how various approaches can enable alignment of value streams

and the creation of sustainable business models.
_____________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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– 8 – ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020
 ISO/IEC 2020

Regulatory, policy, and business issues frame the discussion about the functional

characteristics of TE systems. From these characteristics, this document also presents a

conceptual or reference architecture illustrating the principal functional entities and

relationships. The intent of this material is not to define a specific solution, but to describe the

TE environment and to enable comparisons among various approaches.

This document further examines the practical dimensions of implementing TE systems by

considering the cyber-physical system aspects. Here, too, this document avoids prescribing

specific solutions, but rather identifies gaps and technology challenges that need to be

addressed.

There have also been several new TE pilots proposed and implemented, and panels on TE

can be found at most conferences, including technology-focused conferences such as

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Innovative Smart Grid Technologies

and industry conferences such as DistribuTECH, showing considerable interest in this topic.

TE is also a frequent topic in technical journals, magazines, and blogs. These varied

platforms for discussing TE indicate a broad acceptance of the possibilities offered and

interest in ways to apply TE by service providers, utilities, and regulators.

The intent of the TE framework is to promote discussion at the conceptual level of common

features or elements of specific models, designs, or implementations of TE systems. At this

conceptual level, the framework is intended to be broad and overarching.

In promoting broader discussion, multiple diverse stakeholders need to be considered.

Consequently, TE involves contributions from multiple disciplines spanning both economics

and engineering. The implications of the potential new approaches for managing and

controlling electric power systems call for a broad involvement of economists, regulators,

policy makers, vendors, integrators, utilities, researchers, end-consumers such as building

owner-operators, and other stakeholders. The diversity of thought provided by multiple

viewpoints is important to achieving a framework that addresses the variety of perspectives

and needs these stakeholders bring to the table.

A framework is a method and a set of supporting tools that can be used for developing an

architecture. The TE framework is a tool that can be used for developing a broad range of

different architectures for implementing transactive techniques. This document discusses

approaches for designing a transactive system in terms of a set of building blocks, and for

showing how the building blocks fit together.

The United States Department of Energy has supported the GridWise® Architecture Council

(GWAC) in specifying a conceptual framework for developing architectures and designing

solutions related to TE. The goal of this effort is to encourage and facilitate collaboration

among the many stakeholders involved in the transformation of the power system and thereby

advance the practical implementation of TE. The GWAC developed this document to provide

definitions of terms, architectural principles and guidelines, and other descriptive elements

that present a common ground for all interested parties to discuss and advance TE.

In creating the TE framework (this document), the authors presume an audience with a good

understanding of interoperability, familiarity with ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-2 [5], and knowledge of

energy markets and associated business models. People with this level of background should

be reasonably able to understand the proposed ideas, critically review them, and participate

in reworking or refining the framework so that it becomes a shared creation with tools that

propagate and that serve the diverse smart grid community. This document covers the topic of

TE at an abstract, conceptual level without prescribing specific implementations. The

audience for this document includes policy makers, regulators, vendors, utilities, researchers,

practitioners, and end-use asset owners.
_____________

GridWise is a registered trademark of Gridwise, Inc. This information is given for the convenience of users of

this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC or ISO.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020 – 9 –
 ISO/IEC 2020

In addition to this document, the GWAC produced a TE Decision Maker's Checklist [6] and a

TE Roadmap (ISO/IEC 15067-3-7) [7]. Each document is designed for a different audience

and each provides a different perspective on what transactive systems are, how they will

evolve, and necessary policy considerations (see Figure 1). In addition, the Smart Grid

Interoperability Panel (now Smart Electric Power Alliance) produced a TE Landscape

Scenarios white paper presenting six high-level operational scenarios [8]. Collectively, these

explore TE interactions and provide examples where TE systems produce value.
Figure 1 – Overview of GWAC transactive energy reference documents
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– 10 – ISO/IEC TR 15067-3-8:2020
 ISO/IEC 2020
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (HES) APPLICATION MODEL –
Part 3-8: GridWise transactive energy framework
1 Scope

This part of ISO/IEC 15067, which is a Technical Report, provides a conceptual framework for

developing architectures and designing solutions related to transactive energy (TE).

Transactive energy allows electricity generated local
...

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