Méthode de calcul de l'intensité de l'émission de dioxyde de carbone de la production de la fonte et de l'acier

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Published
Publication Date
20-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
10-Nov-2020
Completion Date
09-Nov-2020
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FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 14404-4
ISO/TC 17
Calculation method of carbon dioxide
Secretariat: JISC
emission intensity from iron and steel
Voting begins on:
2020-09-14 production —
Voting terminates on:
Part 4:
2020-11-09
Guidance for using ISO 14404 family
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Emissions ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Gas fuel ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Liquid fuel ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Solid fuel ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.5 Auxiliary material ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.6 Energy carriers ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.7 Ferrous containing materials ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.8 Alloys ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.9 Product and by-product .................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.10 Others .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Relevance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Completeness ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Consistency .............................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Accuracy .....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.6 Transparency .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

6 Characteristic features of ISO 14404 series ..........................................................................................................................10

7 Guidance for applying ISO 14404 series to all types of steel plants ............................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Application of ISO 14404 series for steel plants not covered in ISO 14404 parts 1,

2 and 3 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.1 Steel Plants with iron making processes other than BF and on-site

production of DRI .........................................................................................................................................................13

7.2.2 Steel Plants with multiple process routes ...............................................................................................13

7.2.3 Steel plants which purchase pig iron from outside .........................................................................13

7.2.4 Steel plants which purchase all or part of semi-finished steel product

from outside ......................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Guideline for making comparisons using ISO 14404 series .........................................................................14

8 Calculation using the Universal Calculation Sheet .........................................................................................................15

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Calculation procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 Data collection of crude steel production (or final steel production) ............................17

8.2.2 Data collection of direct and/or upstream CO emission sources .....................................17

8.2.3 Data collection of credit CO emissions sources ...............................................................................18

8.2.4 Calculation ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

9 Additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 series .....................................................................................................24

9.1 Evaluation of slag ...............................................................................................................................................................................24

9.2 Explanation of emission factors for by-product gases .......................................................................................24

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.2.2 Explanation of emission factors based on world average electricity equivalent ..25

9.2.3 Explanation of emission factors based on natural gas equivalent .....................................26

9.2.4 Evaluation of stock ......................................................................................................................................................27

9.3 Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel ........................................27

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)

Annex A (informative) Calculation of energy consumption and intensity .................................................................28

Annex B (informative) Application of the ISO 14404 series......................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Universal Calculation Sheet ...........................................................................................................................32

Annex D (informative) An example of template for using different emission factors or

emission sources from Table 7 ...........................................................................................................................................................34

Annex E (Informative) Boundary calculation for a steel plant which produces crude steel

and uses purchased semi-finished steel products .........................................................................................................36

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 17, Steel.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
Introduction

The steel industry recognizes the urgent need to take actions concerning climate change. Slowing

and halting global warming requires reductions in GHG emissions on a global scale. To play a part in

achieving these reductions, it is necessary for steel plants to identify the amount of CO emitted during

the production of steel products, in order to identify next opportunities for reduction of CO .

As the calculation methods for CO emission and intensity in iron and steel industry, ISO 14404-1

(for steel plants with blast furnace) and ISO 14404-2 (for steel plants with electric arc furnace) were

published in 2013, and ISO 14404-3 (for steel plants with electric arc furnace and coal-based or gas-

based direct reduction iron facility) was published in 2017.

ISO 14404 series specifies calculation methods for the carbon dioxide (CO ) intensity of a steel plant

from the amounts of the major inputs (purchased items) and outputs (sold items), such as natural

resources, intermediate products, and energy. The concept is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Conceptual diagram of calculation method in ISO 14404 series

This calculation method only uses basic imports and exports that are commonly measured and recorded

by the plants; thus, the method requires neither the measurement of the specific efficiency of individual

equipment or processes nor dedicated measurements of the complex flow and recycling of materials

and waste heat. In this way, the calculation method ensures its simplicity and universal applicability

without requiring steel plants to install additional dedicated measuring devices or to collect additional

dedicated data other than commonly used data in the management of plants.

In addition, ISO 14404 series provides the guidance to consider the activities in the boundary that

are located outside of the site boundary by considering the upstream emissions of the intermediate

products produced in such “outsourced steel production activities”. The conceptual diagram of

boundary and site boundary is shown in Figure 2.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
Figure 2 — Conceptual diagram of boundary and site boundary

Intermediate products with possibilities of considering upstream emissions include the following:

— Electricity / steam;

— Substances produced in the basic activities existing in the target process route (e.g. purchased coke

used in the BF - BOF route);

— Substances that substitute the iron source of the process route even if they do not exist in the target

process route (e.g. purchased DRI used in the BF - BOF route).

ISO 14404 series is based on “CO Emissions Data Collection User Guide” established by the World

Steel Association (worldsteel), which consists more than 161 major steel companies in 60 countries

and regions of the world. Actual data collection among worldsteel members has been conducted

yearly based upon this guide since 2007. While the ISO 14404 series of standards and worldsteel "CO

Emissions Data Collection User Guide" share the same concept, they have different characteristics

where the worldsteel’s User Guide provides the method suitable for collecting data from steel plants

across the world in a uniform way, and ISO 14404 series provide methods suitable for the evaluation

of CO intensity of steel plant for each process route (i.e. combination of iron source and steelmaking

process).

Therefore, while worldsteel method applies common boundary and CO emission factors to all

steelworks regardless of their process routes, ISO 14404 series defines the boundary, CO emission

factors and intermediate products for which upstream emissions are considered for each of the process

routes, such as BF-BOF (14404-1), Scrap-EAF (14404-2) and DRI-EAF (14404-3).

This document provides the guidance for calculating the CO intensity at all types of steel plants,

including steel plants with process routes not covered in ISO 14404-1, 2, 3 (steel plants with process

routes other than BF - BOF, Scrap - EAF, DRI - EAF) as well as steel plants with multiple process routes,

by defining the boundary, CO emission factors and the intermediate products for which upstream

emissions are considered for each of all types of steel plants. This document also includes Universal

Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404 parts 1, 2 and 3 to assist

the calculation of CO emissions.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)

Moreover, this document provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 series for the following

topics, which have not been covered by ISO 14404 parts 1, 2 and 3.
a) Evaluation of exported slags
b) Evaluation of by-product gas
c) Evaluation of stock
d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel
viii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
Calculation method of carbon dioxide emission intensity
from iron and steel production —
Part 4:
Guidance for using ISO 14404 family
1 Scope

This document provides guidance for calculating the CO intensity at steel plants with all types of

process routes, by defining the boundary, CO emission factors and the intermediate products for which

upstream emissions are considered for all types of process routes. In particular, this document provides

guidance applicable to the ISO 14404 series to the types of steel plants listed below. This document also

includes the Universal Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404

parts 1, 2 and 3 to assist the calculation of CO emissions.

i. Steel plants with different process routes from ISO 14404 parts 1, 2 and 3 (7.2.1)

ii. Steel plants with more than one process route (7.2.2)
iii. Steel plants purchasing pig iron from the outside (7.2.3)

iv. Steel plants and rerollers purchasing part or all of crude steel from outside (7.2.4)

Moreover, this document provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 series for the

following topics.
a) Evaluation of exported slags
b) Evaluation of by-product gas
c) Evaluation of stock
d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel

Conversion to energy consumption and to consumption efficiency can be obtained using Annex A.

While the use of the calculation result is outside Scope of this document, appropriate applications and

inappropriate application are recommended in Annex B.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.1 Emissions
3.1.1
emission source
process emitting CO during the production of steel products

Note 1 to entry: There are three categories of CO emission sources: direct, upstream and credit. Examples of

emission sources that are subject to this document are given in direct CO2 emission (3.1.2), upstream CO2 emission

(3.1.3) and credit CO2 emission (3.1.4).
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.1.1]
3.1.2
direct CO emission
CO emissions from steel production activity inside the boundary (3.10.2)

Note 1 to entry: Direct CO emission is categorized as “direct GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.1.2]
3.1.3
upstream CO emission

CO emissions from imported material related to outsourced steel production activities outside the site

boundary (3.10.3) and from imported electricity (3.6.1) and steam (3.6.2) into the site boundary (3.10.3)

Note 1 to entry: CO emissions from imported material in this term are categorized as “other indirect GHG

emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

Note 2 to entry: CO emissions from imported electricity (3.6.1) and steam (3.6.2) in this term are categorized as

“energy indirect GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.1.3, modified – boundary (3.10.2) is changed to site boundary (3.10.3)]

3.1.4
credit CO emission

CO emission that corresponds to exported material and electricity (3.6.1) or steam (3.6.2)

Note 1 to entry: Credit CO emission is categorized as “direct GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.1.4]
3.2 Gas fuel
3.2.1
natural gas

mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane, naturally occurring in the earth and used

principally as a fuel
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.2.1]
3.2.2
coke oven gas
COG
gas recovered from coke (3.4.6) oven
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.2.2]
3.2.3
blast furnace gas
BFG
gas recovered from blast furnace
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.2.3]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.2.4
BOF gas
LDG
gas recovered from basic oxygen furnace (Linze Donawitz converter)
Note 1 to entry: BOF: basic oxygen furnace
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.2.4]
3.2.5
town gas
fuel gas manufactured for domestic and industrial use
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-2:2013, 2.2.2]
3.2.6
COREX gas
gas recovered from COREX
3.2.7
other gas

gas other than natural gas (3.2.1), coke oven gas (3.2.2), blast furnace gas (3.2.3), BOF gas (3.2.4), town

gas (3.2.5), and COREX gas (3.2.6)
3.3 Liquid fuel
3.3.1
heavy oil
No. 4 to No.6 fuel oil defined by ASTM
Note 1 to entry: ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.3.1]
3.3.2
light oil
No. 2 to No.3 fuel oil defined by ASTM
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.3.2]
3.3.3
kerosene
paraffin (oil)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.3.3]
3.3.4
LPG
liquefied petroleum gas
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.3.4]
3.4 Solid fuel
3.4.1
coking coal
coal for making coke (3.4.6), including anthracite
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.1]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.4.2
BF injection coal
pulverized coal injection (PCI) coal, including anthracite
Note 1 to entry: BF: blast furnace
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.2]
3.4.3
sinter coal
BOF coal
coal for sinter (3.7.2)/BOF, including anthracite
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.3]
3.4.4
EAF coal
coal used for an electric arc furnace (EAF) (3.10.5), including anthracite

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-2:2013, 2.4.1, modified – “EAF” is changed to “electric arc furnace (EAF)”. Note 1

to entry is deleted.]
3.4.5
steam coal

boiler coal for producing electricity (3.6.1) and steam (3.6.2), including anthracite

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.4]
3.4.6
coke
solid carbonaceous material
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.5]
3.4.7
charcoal
devolatilized or coked carbon neutral materials
EXAMPLE Trees, plants.
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.4.6]
3.4.8
SR/DRI coal

coal used for smelting reduction (SR, including COREX)/ direct reduction iron (DRI), including

anthracite

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-2:2013, 2.4.5, modified – Note 1 to entry is integrated into the definition]

3.4.9
other coal

coal other than steam coal (3.4.5), coking coal (3.4.1), BF injection coal (3.4.2), sinter coal (3.4.3), EAF

coal (3.4.4), coke (3.4.6), charcoal (3.4.7) and SR/DRI coal (3.4.8)
3.5 Auxiliary material
3.5.1
limestone
calcium carbonate
CaCO
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.1]
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.5.2
burnt lime
CaO
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.2]
3.5.3
crude dolomite
calcium magnesium carbonate
CaMg(CO )
3 2
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.3]
3.5.4
burnt dolomite
CaMgO
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.4]
3.5.5
electric arc furnace graphite electrodes
EAF graphite electrodes
net use of EAF (3.10.5) graphite electrodes or attrition loss
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-2:2013, 2.5.5]
3.5.6
nitrogen

inert gas separated from air at an oxygen plant (3.10.8), imported from/exported to outside the

boundary (3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.5, modified – the definition is simplified]
3.5.7
argon

inert gas separated from air at an oxygen plant (3.10.8), imported from/exported to outside the

boundary (3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.6, modified – the definition is simplified]
3.5.8
oxygen

gas separated from air at an oxygen plant (3.10.8), imported from/exported to outside the boundary

(3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.5.7, modified – the definition is simplified]
3.6 Energy carriers
3.6.1
electricity
electrical energy imported from/exported to outside the boundary (3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.6.1, modified – the definition is simplified]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.6.2
steam
pressurized water vapour imported from/exported to outside the boundary (3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.6.2]
3.7 Ferrous containing materials
3.7.1
pellets
agglomerated spherical iron ore calcinated by rotary kiln
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.1]
3.7.2
sinter

bulk iron ore sintered by baking mixture of fine iron ore, coke (3.4.6) breeze and pulverized lime

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.2]
3.7.3
hot metal

intermediate liquid iron products containing 30 g/kg to 50 g/kg by mass carbon produced by smelting

iron ore with equipment such as blast furnace

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.3, modified – “3 %, 5 %” is replaced with “30 g/kg, 50 g/kg”]

3.7.4
cold iron
solidified hot metal (3.7.3) as an intermediate solid iron product
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.4]
3.7.5
scrap
used steel available for reprocessing
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-2:2013, 2.7.4]
3.7.6
gas-based DRI

direct reduced iron (DRI) reduced by a reducing gas such as reformed natural gas (3.2.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.5]
3.7.7
coal-based DRI
direct reduced iron (DRI) reduced by coal
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.7.6]
3.8 Alloys
3.8.1
ferro-nickel
alloy of iron and nickel
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.8.1]
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14404-4:2020(E)
3.8.2
ferro-chromium
alloy of iron and chromium
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.8.2]
3.8.3
ferro-molybdenum
alloy of iron and molybdenum
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.8.3]
3.9 Product and by-product
3.9.1
CO for external use
CO exported to outside the boundary (3.10.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.9.1]
3.9.2
coal tar

by-products of the carbonization of coal to coke (3.4.6), containing complex and variable mixtures of

phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.9.2]
3.9.3
coal light oil
benzole

light oil (3.3.2) recovered by COG (3.2.2) purification, consisting mainly of benzene, toluene and

xylene (BTX)
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.9.3, modified – “COG gas” is changed to “COG”]
3.9.4
BF slag to cement
blast furnace slag supplied to cement industry
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.9.4]
3.9.5
BOF slag to cement
BOF slag supplied to cement industry
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.9.5]
3.10 Others
3.10.1
other emission source

other related emission sources (3.1.1) such as plastics, scraps (3.7.5), desulfurization additives, alloys,

fluxes for secondary metallurgy, dust, sludge, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 14404-1:2013, 2.10.1]
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 14404-4
ISO/TC 17 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-12-04 2020-02-26
Calculation method of carbon dioxide emission intensity
from iron and steel production —
Part 4:
Guidance for using ISO 14404 family
ICS: 13.020.40; 77.080.01
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Emissions ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Gas fuel ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Liquid fuel ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.4 Solid fuel ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3.5 Auxiliary material ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.6 Energy carriers ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.7 Ferrous containing materials ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.8 Alloys ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.9 Product and by-product .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

3.10 Others .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Relevance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Completeness ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Consistency ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5 Accuracy ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.6 Transparency ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6 Characteristic features of ISO 14404 Family ........................................................................................................................... 8

7 Guidance for applying ISO 14404 family to all types of steel plants ...............................................................9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Application of ISO 14404 family for steel plants not covered in Parts 1, 2 and 3 ......................11

7.2.1 Steel Plants with iron making processes other than BF and DRI .................. ......................11

7.2.2 Steel Plants with multiple process routes ...............................................................................................11

7.2.3 Steel plants which purchase pig iron from outside .........................................................................11

7.2.4 Steel plants which purchase all or part of semi-finished steel product

from outside ......................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Guideline for making comparisons using ISO 14404 family ........................................................................15

8 Calculation using the Universal Calculation Sheet .........................................................................................................15

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Calculation procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 Data collection of crude steel production (or final steel production) ............................17

8.2.2 Data collection of direct and/or upstream CO emission sources .....................................17

8.2.3 Data collection of credit CO emissions sources ...............................................................................19

8.2.4 Calculation ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

9 Additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 family ....................................................................................................23

9.1 Evaluation of Slag ...............................................................................................................................................................................23

9.2 Explanation of emission factors for by-product gases (informative Annex in part 1) ...........23

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

9.2.2 Explanation of emission factors based on world average electricity equivalent ..24

9.2.3 Explanation of emission factors based on natural gas equivalent .....................................25

9.2.4 Evaluation of stock ......................................................................................................................................................26

9.3 Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel ........................................26

Annex A (informative) Calculation of energy consumption and intensity .................................................................27

Annex B (informative) Application of ISO 14404 family ...............................................................................................................30

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Annex C (informative) Universal Calculation Sheet ...........................................................................................................................31

Annex D (informative) An example of template for using different emission factors or

emission sources from Table 7 ...........................................................................................................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee [or Project Committee] ISO/TC [or ISO/PC] ###,

[name of committee], Subcommittee SC ##, [name of subcommittee].

This second/third/… edition cancels and replaces the first/second/… edition (ISO #####:####), which

has been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxx
A list of all parts in the ISO ##### series can be found on the ISO website.
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
Introduction

The steel industry recognizes the urgent need to take actions concerning climate change. Slowing

and halting global warming requires reductions in GHG emissions on a global scale. To play a part in

achieving these reductions, it is necessary for steel plants to identify the amount of CO emitted during

the production of steel products, in order to identify next opportunities for reduction of CO .

As the calculation methods for CO emission and intensity in iron and steel industry, ISO 14404-1 (for

steel plants with blast furnace) and ISO 14404-2 (steel plants with electric arc furnace) were published

in 2013, and ISO 14404-3 (for steel plants with electric arc furnace and coal-based or gas-based direct

reduction iron facility) was published in 2017.

ISO 14404 family specifies calculation methods for the carbon dioxide (CO ) intensity of a steel plant

from the amounts of the major inputs (purchased items) and outputs (sold items), such as natural

resources, intermediate products, and energy. The concept is shown in Figure 1 —.

Figure 1 — Conceptual diagram of calculation method in ISO 14404 family

This calculation method only uses basic imports and exports that are commonly measured and recorded

by the plants; thus, the method requires neither the measurement of the specific efficiency of individual

equipment or processes nor dedicated measurements of the complex flow and recycling of materials

and waste heat. In this way, the calculation method ensures its simplicity and universal applicability

without requiring steel plants to install additional dedicated measuring devices or to collect additional

dedicated data other than commonly used data in the management of plants.

In addition, ISO 14404 family provides the guidance to consider the activities in the boundary that

are located outside of the site boundary by considering the upstream emissions of the intermediate

products produced in such “outsourced steel production activities”. The conceptual diagram of

boundary and site boundary is shown in Figure 2 —.
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
Figure 2 — Conceptual diagram of boundary and site boundary

Intermediate products with possibilities of considering upstream emissions include the following:

— Electricity / steam

— Substances produced in the basic activities existing in the target process route (eg purchased coke

used in the BF - BOF route)

— Substances that substitute the iron source of the process route even if they do not exist in the target

process route (eg purchased DRI used in the BF - BOF route)

ISO 14404 family is based on “CO Emissions Data Collection User Guide” established by the World

Steel Association (worldsteel), which consists more than 161 major steel companies in 60 countries

and regions of the world. Actual data collection among worldsteel members has been conducted yearly

based upon this guide since 2007. While ISO 14404 family and worldsteel "CO Emissions Data Collection

User Guide" share the same concept, they have different characteristics where the worldsteel’s User

Guide provides the method suitable for collecting data from steel plants across the world in a uniform

way, and ISO 14404 family provide methods suitable for the evaluation of CO intensity of steel plant for

each process route (i.e. combination of iron source and steelmaking process).

Therefore, while worldsteel method applies common boundary and CO emission factors to all

steelworks regardless of their process routes, ISO 14404 family defines the boundary, CO emission

factors and intermediate products for which upstream emissions are considered for each of the process

routes, such as BF-BOF (part 1), Scrap-EAF (part 2) and DRI-EAF (part 3).

ISO 14404 part 4 provides the guidance for calculating the CO intensity at all types of steel plants,

including steel plants with process routes not covered in ISO 14404-1, 2, 3 (steel plants with process

routes other than BF - BOF, Scrap - EAF, DRI - EAF) as well as steel plants with multiple process routes,

by defining the boundary, CO emission factors and the intermediate products for which upstream

emissions are considered for each of all types of steel plants. ISO 14404 part 4 also includes Universal

Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404-1, 2, 3, to assist the

calculation of CO emissions.

Moreover, ISO 14404 part 4 provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 family for the

following topics, which have not been covered by ISO 14404-1, 2, 3.
a) Evaluation of exported slags
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b) Evaluation of by-product gas
c) Evaluation of stock
d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
Calculation method of carbon dioxide emission intensity
from iron and steel production —
Part 4:
Guidance for using ISO 14404 family
1 Scope

ISO 14404 part 4 provides the guidance for calculating the CO intensity at steel plants with all types

of process routes, by defining the boundary, CO emission factors and the intermediate products for

which upstream emissions are considered for all types of process routes. In particular, ISO 14404 part

4 provides the guidance to apply ISO 14404 family to following types of steel plants. ISO 14404 part 4

also includes Universal Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404-1,

2, 3, to assist the calculation of CO emissions.
i. Steel plants with different process routes from ISO 14404-1, 2, 3 (7.2.1)
ii. Steel plants with more than one process route (7.2.2)
iii. Steel plants purchasing pig iron from the outside (7.2.3)

iv. Steel plants and rerollers purchasing part or all of crude steel from outside (7.2.4)

Moreover, ISO 14404 part 4 provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 family for the

following topics.
a) Evaluation of exported slags
b) Evaluation of by-product gas
c) Evaluation of stock
d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel

Conversion to energy consumption and to consumption efficiency can be obtained using Annex A.

While the use of the calculation result is outside Scope of this standard, appropriate applications and

inappropriate application are recommended in Annex B.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.1 Emissions
3.1.1
emission source
process emitting CO during the production of steel products

Note 1 to entry: There are three categories of CO emission sources: direct, upstream and credit. Examples of

emission sources that are subject to this document are given in 3.1.2, 3.1.3 and 3.1.4.

3.1.2
direct CO emission
CO emissions from steel production activity inside the boundary

Note 1 to entry: Direct CO emission is categorized as “direct GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

3.1.3
upstream CO emission

CO emissions from imported material related to outsourced steel production activities outside the site

boundary and from imported electricity and steam into the site boundary

Note 1 to entry: CO emissions from imported material in this term are categorized as “other indirect GHG

emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

Note 2 to entry: CO emissions from imported electricity and steam in this term are categorized as “energy

indirect GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.
3.1.4
credit CO emission
CO emission that corresponds to exported material and electricity or steam

Note 1 to entry: Credit CO emission is categorized as “direct GHG emissions” in ISO 14064-1.

3.2 Gas fuel
3.2.1
natural gas

mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane, naturally occurring in the earth and used

principally as a fuel
3.2.2
coke oven gas
COG
gas recovered from coke oven
3.2.3
blast furnace gas
BFG
gas recovered from blast furnace
3.2.4
BOF gas
LDG
gas recovered from basic oxygen furnace (Linze Donawitz converter)
Note 1 to entry: BOF: basic oxygen furnace
3.2.5
town gas
fuel gas manufactured for domestic and industrial use
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.2.6
COREX gas
gas recovered from COREX
3.2.7
Other gas

gas other than natural gas, coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, BOF gas and town gas

3.3 Liquid fuel
3.3.1
heavy oil
No. 4 to No.6 fuel oil defined by ASTM
Note 1 to entry: ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.
3.3.2
light oil
No. 2 to No.3 fuel oil defined by ASTM
3.3.3
kerosene
paraffin (oil)
3.3.4
LPG
liquefied petroleum gas
3.4 Solid fuel
3.4.1
coking coal
coal for making coke, including anthracite
3.4.2
BF injection coal
pulverized coal injection (PCI) coal, including anthracite
Note 1 to entry: BF: blast furnace
3.4.3
sinter coal
BOF coal
coal for sinter/BOF, including anthracite
3.4.4
EAF coal
coal used for an electric arc furnace (EAF), including anthracite
3.4.5
steam coal
boiler coal for producing electricity and steam, including anthracite
3.4.6
coke
solid carbonaceous material
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.4.7
charcoal
devolatilized or coked carbon neutral materials
EXAMPLE Trees, plants.
3.4.8
SR/DRI coal

coal used for smelting reduction (SR, including COREX)/ direct reduction iron (DRI), including

anthracite
3.4.9
Other coal

coal other than steam coal, coking coal, BF injection coal, sinter coal, EAF coal, coke, charcoal and SR/

DRI coal
3.5 Auxiliary material
3.5.1
limestone
calcium carbonate
CaCO
3.5.2
burnt lime
CaO
3.5.3
crude dolomite
calcium magnesium carbonate
CaMg(CO )
3 2
3.5.4
burnt dolomite
CaMgO
3.5.5
electric arc furnace graphite electrodes
EAF graphite electrodes
net use of EAF graphite electrodes or attrition loss
3.5.6
nitrogen

inert gas separated from air at an oxygen plant, imported from outside the boundary or exported to

outside the boundary
3.5.7
argon

inert gas separated from air at an oxygen plant, imported from outside the boundary or exported to

outside the boundary
3.5.8
oxygen

gas separated from air at an oxygen plant, imported from outside the boundary or exported to outside

the boundary
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.6 Energy carriers
3.6.1
electricity

electricity imported from outside the boundary or exported to outside the boundary

3.6.2
steam
pressurized water vapour imported from/exported to outside the boundary
3.7 Ferrous containing materials
3.7.1
pellets
agglomerated spherical iron ore calcinated by rotary kiln
3.7.2
sinter

bulk iron ore sintered by baking mixture of fine iron ore, coke breeze and pulverized lime

3.7.3
hot metal

intermediate liquid iron products containing 3 % to 5 % by mass carbon produced by smelting iron ore

with equipment such as blast furnace
3.7.4
cold iron
solidified hot metal as an intermediate solid iron product
3.7.5
scrap
used steel available for reprocessing
3.7.6
gas-based DRI
direct reduced iron (DRI) reduced by a reducing gas such as reformed natural gas
3.7.7
coal-based DRI
direct reduced iron (DRI) reduced by coal
3.8 Alloys
3.8.1
ferro-nickel
alloy of iron and nickel
3.8.2
ferro-chromium
alloy of iron and chromium
3.8.3
ferro-molybdenum
alloy of iron and molybdenum
3.9 Product and by-product
3.9.1
CO for external use
CO exported to outside the boundary
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.9.2
coal tar

by-products of the carbonization of coal to coke, containing complex and variable mixtures of phenols

and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
3.9.3
coal light oil
benzole

light oil recovered by COG gas purification, consisting mainly of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX)

3.9.4
BF slag to cement
blast furnace slag supplied to cement industry
3.9.5
BOF slag to cement
BOF slag supplied to cement industry
3.10 Others
3.10.1
other emission source

other related emission sources such as plastics, scraps, desulfurization additives, alloys, fluxes for

secondary metallurgy, dust, sludge, etc.
3.10.2
boundary

limit of activity used to calculate CO emissions intensity for steel production activities

Note 1 to entry: boundary may be different from the site boundary
3.10.3
site boundary

boundary defined by the target steel production site for the calculation of CO emission and intensity

3.10.4
process route

route of steel production defined by the combination of iron source and steel making process

3.10.5
EAF
electric arc furnace
furnace that melts and refines iron-bearing material into steel
3.10.6
casting

pouring steel directly from a ladle through a tundish into a mould shaped to form billets, blooms or

slabs, or pouring steel from a ladle into a mould shaped to form ingots
3.10.7
lime kiln

kiln used to produce burnt lime (3.5.2) by the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate)

3.10.8
oxygen plant
cryogenic air separator to produce high-purity oxygen
3.10.9
steam boiler
boiler for production of steam
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ISO/DIS 14404-4:2019(E)
3.10.10
power plant
plant that generates electricity
3.10.11
RHF
reheating furnace

heating furnace used in hot rolling mills to heat the steel stock (billets, blooms or slabs)

3.10.12
hot rolling
rolling at elevated temperature
3.10.13
cold rolling
rolling at room temperature
3.10.14
coating

covering steel with another material (tin, chrome, zinc, etc.), primarily for corrosion resistance

Note 1 to entry: Coating materials may include tin, chrome, zinc, etc.
4 Symbols
The symbols used in this part of ISO 14404 are given in Table 1 —.
Table 1 — Symbols
Symbols Unit Description
Ed,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO Direct CO emissions
2 2 2
Eu,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO Upstream CO emissions
2 2 2
Ec,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO Credit CO emissions
2 2 2
ECO ,annual tons (or tonnes) of CO Annual CO emissions
2 2 2
ICO tons (or tonnes) of CO per ton CO intensity factor
2 2 2

Kt,d,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO per unit Emission factor for calculation of direct CO emissions

2 2 2

Kt,u,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO per unit Emission factor for calculation of upstream CO emissions

2 2 2

Kt,c,CO tons (or tonnes) of CO per unit Emission factor for calculation of credit CO emissions

2 2 2
P — Annual crude steel production
Qt,d,CO — Quantities of direct CO emission sources
2 2
Qt,u,CO — Quantities of upstream CO emission sources
2 2
Qt,c,CO — Quantities of credit CO emission sources
2 2
5 Principles
5.1 General

The application of principles is a base to ensure that calculated CO intensity is effectively usable for

steel producers to assess their production site efficiency universally without specificity of product

configurations, location of site, and individual facility used in the site.
...

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