Smart community infrastructure -- Electric power infrastructure -- Measurement methods for the quality of thermal power infrastructure and requirements for plant operations and management

This document specifies methods for measuring the quality of thermal power infrastructure (QTPI) during the operational phase and requirements for operations and management activities. It is intended for use by electric power providers, including public utilities and independent power producers (hereinafter collectively referred to as power plant operators), as well as relevant stakeholders that intend to maintain and improve QTPI. NOTE The selection and importance of evaluation indicators resulting from the implementation of this document can vary depending on the characteristics of the power plant operator.

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Published
Publication Date
30-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
21-Feb-2020
Completion Date
31-Mar-2020
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ISO 37160:2020 - Smart community infrastructure -- Electric power infrastructure -- Measurement methods for the quality of thermal power infrastructure and requirements for plant operations and management
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37160
First edition
2020-03
Smart community infrastructure —
Electric power infrastructure —
Measurement methods for the quality
of thermal power infrastructure and
requirements for plant operations and
management
Reference number
ISO 37160:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 E valuation indicators for the QTPI during the operational phase ...................................................................3

4.1 QTPI .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Elements of the QTPI ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Initial operation capability ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.3 Supply stability .................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.2.4 Reliability (reliable operation and fast recovery) ............................................................................... 4

4.2.5 Environmental and social considerations .................................................................................................. 5

4.2.6 Safety .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.7 LCC ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.8 Performance indicators and evaluation of the QTPI ......................................................................... 5

4.3 E valuation indicators ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 Supply stability .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.2 Reliability (reliable operation and fast recovery): Forced outage rate (FOR) ............ 7

4.3.3 Environmental and social considerations .................................................................................................. 7

4.3.4 Safety: number of injuries caused by industrial safety accidents ......................................10

4.3.5 LCC (LCC considering the five other elements of QTPI)..............................................................10

5 Operation of thermal power infrastructure ..........................................................................................................................11

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Measurement .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Data control ............................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.4 Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Response to risks and opportunities ................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Operation control...............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.7 Integrated management ...............................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Example of an LCC formula considering all five other elements of QTPI .......16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
Introduction

This document describes methods for measuring the quality of thermal power infrastructure (QTPI)

during the operational phase as well as the requirements for operations and management activities for

the purpose of maintaining and improving the QTPI in the medium and long term in order to realize the

objectives of the 3E+S (energy security, environmental conservation, economic efficiency, safety) energy

policy. The 3E+S energy policy is a framework established to ensure QTPI during its operational phase.

Considering the importance of a sufficient and stable electric power supply to the economy, standard

of living and day-to-day needs, electric power shortages or frequent power outages are serious risks

to society. Maintaining and improving the QTPI is an important concern for all regions, particularly

for regions in the process of rapid economic growth. A sufficient and stable electric power supply can

be achieved by establishing thermal power infrastructure as planned and operating this effectively

throughout its life cycle.

Reducing the environmental impacts associated with thermal power infrastructure, such as greenhouse

gas (GHG) emissions, is a global issue and reduction of the impacts is a goal of this document. Minimizing

the impacts needs to take into account the social costs of the environmental impact, the costs required

for environmental protection measures and the effectiveness of these measures.

From these viewpoints, it is expected that efforts to maintain and improve the QTPI by applying

appropriate operations and management will make society more sustainable. This document is intended

to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals outlined by the United Nations, specifically goal 7

(affordable and clean energy), goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities), goal 13 (climate action),

goal 14 (life below water) and goal 15 (life on land).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37160:2020(E)
Smart community infrastructure — Electric power
infrastructure — Measurement methods for the quality of
thermal power infrastructure and requirements for plant
operations and management
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for measuring the quality of thermal power infrastructure (QTPI)

during the operational phase and requirements for operations and management activities.

It is intended for use by electric power providers, including public utilities and independent power

producers (hereinafter collectively referred to as power plant operators), as well as relevant

stakeholders that intend to maintain and improve QTPI.

NOTE The selection and importance of evaluation indicators resulting from the implementation of this

document can vary depending on the characteristics of the power plant operator.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
thermal power infrastructure

unit (3.2) or plant (3.3) generating electric power utilizing oil, gas, coal or biomass as fuel

3.2
unit
assembly of equipment required for operating one generator

Note 1 to entry: This could include, for example, a generator, turbine, boiler and balance of plant.

Note 2 to entry: When unit means a definite magnitude of quantity used as a standard of measurement, the term

“unit of measure” is used in this document.
3.3
plant

entire premises including units (3.2) and the common facilities, land and buildings relating to the units

3.4
gross maximum capacity
GMC
maximum output power that a unit (3.2) can generate in a specific period
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
3.5
net maximum capacity
NMC

output power calculated by subtracting the power of the auxiliary systems used by the unit (3.2) from

the GMC (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: Depending on the objective of using NMC, either of the following two calculation methods can be

applied.

a) Plant NMC: the output power calculated by subtracting the total internal consumption of the plant (3.6) from

the plant (3.3) GMC.

b) Unit NMC: the output power calculated by subtracting the power consumption of the auxiliary systems for

the particular unit from the unit GMC.
3.6
total internal consumption of the plant

summation of the power consumption of the auxiliary systems and general power consumption within

the plant (3.3)

Note 1 to entry: General power consumption includes energy consumption of administration offices such as

lighting and air conditioning.
3.7
equivalent unit derated hours
EUNDH

value calculated by dividing the product of the derated output power amount and the derated output

power time by the NMC (3.5)
3.8
available hours
time during which the unit (3.2) is available for service
3.9
period hours

time the unit (3.2) was intended to operate excluding unintended shutdown time resulting from natural

disasters
3.10
service hours

time that the unit (3.2) is electrically connected to an electric power grid and generating electric power

3.11
equivalent availability factor excluding seasonal deratings
EAF, XS

portion of a given operating period in which a generating unit (3.2) is available without any outage

3.12
heat rate

value calculated by dividing the fuel input to the unit (3.2) by the generated power

3.13
forced outage hours
FOH
time that a unit (3.2) did not operate due to forced outages
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
3.14
forced outage rate
FOR
rate that a unit (3.2) was not available due to forced outages
3.15
ability to adjust power supply to demand

ability of a unit (3.2) to adjust its output power according to changes in demand

3.16
restricted time of the ability to adjust power supply to demand

time that the ability to adjust output power according to changes in demand is restricted

Note 1 to entry: The total time of the following are included.

a) The time that the use of auto frequency control (AFC) or load frequency control (LFC) was restricted due to

unplanned causes.

b) The time that the output power of the unit (3.2) was constant due to unplanned causes.

Note 2 to entry: AFC is defined as the adjustment of output power using AFC devices to maintain the frequency of

the electric system within a standard value.

Note 3 to entry: LFC is defined as detecting frequency variations and interconnected power variations caused

by load variations and controlling the output power to maintain the frequency and power flow within standard

values during normal operation.
3.17
emission rate

emissions of a given pollutant per unit (3.2) of output power over a given time period

EXAMPLE The value calculated by dividing the annual emissions by the annual power generation.

Note 1 to entry: Emission rate (of stacks) generally refers to SO , NO , CO and particulate matter (PM) that are

X X 2
emitted from a unit.
3.18
industrial safety accident rate

number of people who became unable to work, the number of people whose work was restricted and

the number of fatalities due to an accident per 200 000 or 1 000 000 man-hours worked

4 E valuation indicators for the QTPI during the operational phase
4.1 QTPI

QTPI is an indication of the degree to which thermal power infrastructure consistently meets or

exceeds requirements or expectations regarding:
— initial operation capability;
— supply stability;
— reliability;
— environmental and social considerations;
— safety;
— life cycle cost (LCC).

NOTE 1 The 3E+S is used to represent QTPI: energy security, environmental conservation, economic efficiency

and safety.
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ISO 37160:2020(E)

NOTE 2 The three sub-elements of energy security which are specific to thermal power infrastructure are:

— initial operation capability;
— supply stability;
— reliability.

NOTE 3 Environmental and social considerations are both used to indicate general aspects of the quality of

infrastructure.
Figure 1 — Elements of the QTPI
4.2 Elements of the QTPI
4.2.1 General

Power plant operators shall consider the elements listed from 4.2.2 to 4.2.7 in order to maintain and

continuously improve the QTPI during the operational phase. See Figure 1.
4.2.2 Initial operation capability

Initial operation capability means the ability to begin operation of thermal power infrastructure as

planned and scheduled in accordance with relevant specifications and unit-specific conditions.

4.2.3 Supply stability

Supply stability means the ability of thermal power infrastructure to consistently supply electric power

when required.
4.2.4 Reliability (reliable operation and fast recovery)

Reliable operation means to minimize internal forced outages of thermal power infrastructure as much

as is practical and to safely deactivate the infrastructure without damaging the equipment.

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ISO 37160:2020(E)
Fast recovery means to recover from a forced outage as soon as is practical.

NOTE Internal forced outage refers to a shutdown or output power suppression that is within the control

of the power plant. They can be caused by external and internal incidents, excluding shutting down or limiting

output power due to events such as planned maintenance.
4.2.5 Environmental and social considerations

Environmental and social considerations means the consideration given to the prevention or control

of environmental impacts attributable to the thermal power infrastructure and to the need to coexist

with the local community.

NOTE 1 The factors that need to be considered from the viewpoint of reducing adverse environmental impacts

can include, but are not limited to, the control of air pollutants, waste water, effluents, noise, other waste and

GHG emissions.

NOTE 2 The factors that need to be considered from the viewpoint of addressing social aspects can include,

but are not limited to, community engagement, operational transparency and public disclosure. For details of

social considerations refer to ISO 26000.
4.2.6 Safety
Safety means the ability to prevent injury to humans.
4.2.7 LCC

LCC in the context of thermal power infrastructure means the summation of the costs incurred

throughout the life cycle of the thermal power infrastructure, provided that it satisfies all requirements

of the QTPI elements specified above.

Note that LCC can generally be classified into engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) costs,

operating and maintenance costs and demolition costs, including disposal costs. In the case of a thermal

power infrastructure, fuel costs typically account for a large portion of operating costs. The LCC also

includes other costs such as costs caused by forced outages or the costs associated with compensation

or penalties incurred as a result of failing to meet requirements for emissions or pollutants.

4.2.8 Performance indicators and evaluation of the QTPI

Power plant operators shall collect the data required for evaluation by evaluators as specified in

Table 1 to Table 10. Evaluators may include stakeholders such as insurance underwriters, governments,

power providers, NGOs and environmental organizations. Evaluators may utilize the indicators

shown in 4.3 for appropriate measurement of the QTPI during the operational phase of the thermal

power infrastructure. The evaluation methods and formulas shall be reviewed, as appropriate, so that

evaluations can accommodate relevant changes in requirements or circumstances.
4.3 Evaluation indicators
4.3.1 Supply stability
4.3.1.1 Availability

Table 1 shows the evaluation method, formula, evaluation period, unit of measure and scope required to

assess, at planned intervals, operation and maintenance capability of the thermal power infrastructure

and the quality of unit.
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ISO 37160:2020(E)
Table 1 — Evaluation indicator of supply stability: Availability

Evaluation Compute the equivalent availability factor excluding seasonal deratings (EAF, XS) of the unit

method concerned.
Formula
Ft=−tt/ ×100
EAFX, SAHEUNDH PH
where
is the EAF, XS;
EAFX, S
t is the AH;
is the EUNDH;
EUNDH
t is the PH.
Evaluation Determined by evaluator (e.g. 5 years)
period
Unit of %
measure
Scope of Unit
evaluation
4.3.1.2 Changes to heat rate (HR)
Table 2 shows the evaluation method, formula, evaluation period, uni
...

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