Empreinte carbone des fruits de mer -- Règles de définition des catégories de produit (CFP–PCR) pour les poissons

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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 22948
ISO/TC 234 Secretariat: SN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-04-24 2020-07-17
Carbon footprint for seafood — Product category rules
(CFP-PCR) for finfish
ICS: 67.120.30
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Quantification of the carbon footprint of a product................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Products, product systems and processes ...................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Data and data quality......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.4 Greenhouse gases ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

3.5 Waste, storage and transport ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Calculation and communication requirements .................................................................................................................... 6

5 Methodological requirements ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Functional unit or declared unit .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Principles of data and methodological reporting ..................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Impact assessment .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 System boundaries .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5.2 The cut-off criterion: General rule for what can be excluded from the

carbon footprint ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.3 General processes which can be excluded ................................................................................................. 9

5.5.4 System boundaries for waste .............................................................................................................................10

5.5.5 Use of recycled or recovered materials .....................................................................................................10

5.5.6 Capital investments ....................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.7 System boundaries for fishing ...........................................................................................................................10

5.5.8 System boundaries for feed production ...................................................................................................11

5.5.9 System boundaries for products from aquaculture ........................................................................12

5.5.10 System boundaries for processing ................................................................................................................12

5.5.11 System boundaries for distribution to dealers ...................................................................................13

5.5.12 System boundary for final consumption ..................................................................................................14

5.6 Data requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.2 Rules for data sampling...........................................................................................................................................15

5.6.3 Data on electricity ........................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.4 Data on fuel ........................................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.5 Geographical delimitation ....................................................................................................................................16

5.6.6 Time delimitation .........................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.7 Validation of data ..........................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.8 Transport calculation rules..................................................................................................................................16

5.7 Allocation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Impact assessment ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

5.9 Interpretation .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.10 Fossil and biogenic carbon ........................................................................................................................................................17

5.11 Land use change ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.12 Land use .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.13 Carbon sequestration .....................................................................................................................................................................17

5.14 Communication of carbon footprints for finfish .....................................................................................................18

5.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.14.2 Details about the producer ..................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Example of data collection in the calculation of the carbon footprint

of finfish products from aquaculture and fisheries ......................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Example of mass allocation for salmon co-product processing ..............................21

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)

Annex C (informative) Example of LCA seabass value-chain modelling .......................................................................22

Annex D (informative) Example of fish meal LCA value-chain modelling ...................................................................24

Annex E (informative) Example of LCA fish oil value-chain modelling for human consumption .......25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 234, Fisheries and aquaculture.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
Introduction

This standard contains product category rules for the calculation and communication of the carbon

footprint of finfish products. The CFP-PCR — Carbon Footprint of Products — Product Category Rules

is as defined in ISO 14067:2018.

This standard sets out rules for the calculation and communication of the carbon footprint of finfish

products. The overarching aim of the standard is to provide a basis for reliable and accurate information

about the climate impact of the product. It is a pre-condition for a market-driven reduction of climate

impact of finfish products that dealers and consumers are able to choose the products with the least

climate impact. In addition to this, the standard will provide:

— A basis for the development of tools and databases for calculating the carbon footprint of finfish

products;
— A basis for internal improvement efforts in the finfish industry;

— An improved knowledge base concerning the value chains of finfish products, their resource

consumption, and climate impacts;

— A basis for further understanding the environmental impact of finfish products beyond climate

change alone.

This standard is intended to function in line with ordinary market mechanisms. Providing credible and

transparent information about the products' climate impact will pave the way for increased demand

and market value of the most climate-friendly finfish products. It will also provide incentives to drive

further improvements and reduce energy consumption and climate impacts from all links in finfish

value-chains.
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
Carbon footprint for seafood — Product category rules
(CFP-PCR) for finfish
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for calculating the carbon footprint specific to finfish product

category rules (CFP-PCR). This methodology builds on the requirements of ISO standards for life-cycle

assessment (LCA) and products’ carbon footprints.

This document is applicable to the calculation and communication of finfish products' carbon

footprints from fishing and/or cultivation of feed ingredients to the consumption of finfish products.

It is applicable to the carbon footprints of products from both fisheries and aquaculture value-chains.

This document used alone does not apply to specifying a product's overall environmental or

sustainability characteristics.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044:2006, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO 14026:2017, Environmental labels and declarations — Principles, requirements and guidelines for

communication of footprint information

ISO 14067:2018, Greenhouse gases — Carbon footprint of products — Requirements and guidelines for

quantification

IPCC 2013, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth

Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Quantification of the carbon footprint of a product
3.1.1
carbon footprint of a product
CFP

sum of greenhouse gas emissions and removals in a product system, expressed as CO equivalents and

based on a life-cycle assessment using the single impact category of climate change

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 14067:2013, 3.1.1.1]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
3.1.2
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO equivalent
CO e

unit for comparing the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases to that of carbon dioxide

Note 1 to entry: Mass of a GHG is converted into CO equivalents by multiplying the mass of the GHG by the

corresponding global warming potential or global temperature change potential of that gas.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of GTP, CO equivalent is the unit for comparing the change in global mean surface

temperature caused by a GHG to the temperature change caused by CO .
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.2.2]
3.1.3
partial carbon footprint of a product
partial CFP

sum of GHG emissions and GHG removals of one or more selected process(es) in a product system,

expressed as CO equivalents and based on the selected stages or processes within the life cycle

Note 1 to entry: A partial CFP is based on or compiled from data related to (a) specific process(es) or footprint

information modules, which is (are) part of a product system and can form the basis for quantification of a CFP.

More detailed information on information modules is given in ISO 14025:2006, 5.4.

Note 2 to entry: “Footprint information modules” is defined in ISO 14026:2017, 3.1.4.

Note 3 to entry: The results of the quantification of the partial CFP are documented in the CFP study report

expressed in mass of CO2e per declared unit.
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.1.2]
3.2 Products, product systems and processes
3.2.1
product
any goods or service
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2009. 6.2, modified – notes to entry have been deleted]
3.2.2
product category
group of products which have equivalent function
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2009, 8.3.3]
3.2.3
primary product
primary output of commercial value from a production process
3.2.4
by-product

secondary output from a process, but of commercial value, which is produced in addition to a defined

primary product
3.2.5
intermediate goods

raw materials or semi-finished goods, which may be recycled or recovered, which are fed into the

product system
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
3.2.6
capital goods

products which are not used up in consumption or production over a brief period, but which retain

their function over a longer time
3.2.7
seafood

food, of which a significant proportion of the content derives directly from animals or plants that live in

the sea, in lakes or in watercourses
3.2.8
finfish
products from fisheries and aquaculture as defined by the FAO

Note 1 to entry: Finfish species and their yearly production volumes are available in FishStatJ and regularly

published by the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, available from: http:// www .fao .org/ fishery/

statistics/ en
3.2.9
animal feeding stuff

substance or product, including additives, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, to

be used for oral feeding to animals

EXAMPLE Raw materials, fodder, meat and bone meal, mixed feed and other end products, pet food, etc.

[SOURCE: ISO 12099:2017, 3.2]
3.2.10
edible product

quantity of fish and fish products as available for sale from a retailer, excluding packaging

3.2.11
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation of

natural resources to the final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.2.12
value-chain

range of activities or parties who create or receive value in the form of products or services

3.2.13
product category rules for carbon footprints
CFP-PCR

set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for the calculation and communication of carbon

footprints of one or more product categories

Note 1 to entry: CFP-PCR is an abbreviation of “Carbon Footprint of Products – Product Category Rules”.

3.2.14
product system

collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined

functions, and which models the life cycle of a product
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.28]
3.2.15
declared unit

quantity of a product (3.2.1) for use as a reference unit in the quantification of a partial CFP

EXAMPLE Mass (1 kg of primary steel), volume (1 m of crude oil).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.3.8]
3.2.16
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit

Note 1 to entry: As the CFP treats information on a product (3.2.1) basis, an additional calculation based on a

declared unit (3.2.12) can be presented.
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.20, Note 1 to entry ISO 14067:2018]
3.2.17
allocation

partitioning the input or output flows of a process or a product system between the product system

under study and one or more other product systems
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 3.17]
3.2.18
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat, or to operate chemical

or physical processes
[SOURCE: ISO 16818:2008, 3.75]
3.2.19
fishing gear

aids used to retrieve biological material from the sea or freshwater, but which are not integrated parts

of the fishing vessel
3.2.20
refrigerant

medium which is used to maintain a specified temperature e.g. in a room lower than ambient through

switching between aggregate states by the medium readily taking up or releasing heat

3.2.21
cut-off criterion

specification of the amount of material or energy flow or the level of environmental significance

associated with unit processes or product system to be excluded from the study
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.18]
3.2.22
direct land use change
dLUC

change in human use or management of land within the organizational boundaries and as part of of

upstream or downstream activities
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 14069:2013, 3,2,4]
3.2.23
indirect land use change
iLUC

change in the use or management of land which is a consequence of direct land use change not taking

place within the operational boundaries of the GHG inventory
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 14069:2013, 3.2.5]
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
3.3 Data and data quality
3.3.1
primary data

quantified value of a process or an activity obtained from a direct measurement or a calculation based

on direct measurements

Note 1 to entry: Primary data need not necessarily originate from the product system under study because

primary data might relate to a different but comparable product system to that being studied.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.2.2 - Note 1 to entry is replaced.]
3.3.2
secondary data
data obtained from sources other than primary data

Note 1 to entry: Such sources can include databases and published literature validated by competent authorities.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.2.4]
3.3.3
data quality

characteristics of data that relate to their ability to satisfy stated requirements

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.19]
3.3.4
statistical representativeness

characteristic of a survey which requires that it is sufficiently large, that it does not include systematic

measurement errors and that it is based on a random sample of measured objects
3.4 Greenhouse gases
3.4.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits

radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s

surface, the atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: For a list of GHGs, see the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC)

Assessment Report.

Note 2 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs, but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties, in most cases, in isolating the human-induced component of global warming

attributable to their presence in the atmosphere.

Note 3 to entry: The focus of this document is limited to long-lived GHGs and it therefore excludes climate effects

due to changes in surface reflectivity (albedo) and short-lived radiative forcing agents (e.g. black carbon and

aerosols).
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.1.1. Note 3 to entry is added.]
3.4.2
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
release of GHG into the atmosphere
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.1.5]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
3.5 Waste, storage and transport
3.5.1
waste
output flow of no commercial value from a process
3.5.2
landfill
more or less permanent storage of waste (3.5.1)
3.5.3
steaming
bi-directional movement of a vessel between a fishing ground and a landing place
3.5.4
radiative forcing

difference between incoming solar radiation on the Earth and outgoing thermal radiation from the Earth

Note 1 to entry: A positive radiative forcing tends to warm the surface and a negative radiative forcing tends to

cool the surface.
4 Calculation and communication requirements

This document only provides rules for calculating a product's potential climate impact and cannot be

used in isolation for specifying a product's overall environmental or sustainability characteristics.

However, the carbon footprint may be included as one of several indicators in the evaluation of a

product's overall environmental or sustainability characteristics.
Calculation and communication of carbon footprints shall
— be seen from an LCA perspective;
— be seen in relation to functional units or declared unit;
— be iteratively approached;
— be scientifically founded;
— be relevant;
— be complete;
— be coherent;
— be consistent;
— be accurate;
— be transparent;
— be free of double counting.

For further information linked to each of these principles, see Clause 5 in ISO 14067:2018. A particular

reference is made to the iterative characteristics of the LCA methodology.
6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/DIS 22948:2020(E)
5 Methodological requirements
5.1 General

The carbon footprint of fish and fish products shall be calculated in accordance with the established

methodology for life-cycle assessments as described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 and in accordance

with the methodology for calculating products' carbon footprints in accordance with ISO 14067.

NOTE ISO/TS 14027 gives general guidance for all types of PCRs.
5.2 Functional unit or declared unit

Functional unit or declared unit of a system shall be selected in accordance with the scope and the

system boundary of the study. Functional unit of finfish shall capture GHG emissions of all life cycle

phases of the CFP and shall be expressed per mass of edible product consumed by the final user.

Declared unit of finfish are more variable but nevertheless shall capture GHG emissions of the specific

life cycle phases of the partial CFP under assessment and shall be express per mass of intermediate

product produced e.g. live-weight, or head-on-gutted finfish.

As supplementary information, carbon footprint may be stated relative to other functional units or

declared units, for example CO equivalents per
— kilogram of whole product;
— sold unit;
— unit of nutrient, such as protein, lipids or specific vitamins;
— energy unit (mega joules or kilocalories).

EXAMPLE 1 A partial CFP is conducted on an aquaculture production system. The LCA practitioner selected

cradle-to-farm gate system boundaries to specifically assess impacts occurring during hatchery and grow-out

production phases. The practitioner’s declared unit is consequently “1t of li
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22948
First edition
Carbon footprint for seafood —
Product category rules (CFP–PCR) for
finfish
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 22948:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22948:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22948:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Quantification of the carbon footprint of a product................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Products, product systems and processes ...................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Data and data quality......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.4 Greenhouse gases ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

3.5 Waste, storage and transport ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Calculation and communication requirements .................................................................................................................... 6

5 Methodological requirements ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Functional unit or declared unit .............................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Principles of data and methodological reporting ..................................................................................................... 7

5.4 Impact assessment .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 System boundaries .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.5.2 The cut-off criterion: General rule for what can be excluded from the

carbon footprint ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5.3 General processes that can be excluded ...................................................................................................... 9

5.5.4 System boundaries for waste ................................................................................................................................ 9

5.5.5 Use of recycled or recovered materials .....................................................................................................10

5.5.6 Capital investments ....................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.7 System boundaries for fishing ...........................................................................................................................10

5.5.8 System boundaries for feed production ...................................................................................................11

5.5.9 System boundaries for products from aquaculture ........................................................................12

5.5.10 System boundaries for processing ................................................................................................................12

5.5.11 System boundaries for distribution to dealers ...................................................................................13

5.5.12 System boundary for final consumption ..................................................................................................14

5.6 Data requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.6.2 Rules for data sampling...........................................................................................................................................15

5.6.3 Data on electricity ........................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.4 Data on fuel ........................................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.5 Geographical delimitation ....................................................................................................................................15

5.6.6 Time delimitation .........................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.7 Validation of data ..........................................................................................................................................................15

5.6.8 Transport calculation rules..................................................................................................................................16

5.7 Allocation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.8 Impact assessment ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

5.9 Interpretation .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.10 Fossil and biogenic carbon ........................................................................................................................................................17

5.11 Land use change ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.12 Land use .....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.13 Carbon sequestration .....................................................................................................................................................................17

5.14 Communication of carbon footprints for finfish .....................................................................................................17

5.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.14.2 Details about the producer ..................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Example of data collection in the calculation of the carbon footprint

of finfish products from aquaculture and fisheries ......................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Example of mass allocation for salmon co-product processing ..............................21

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22948:2020(E)

Annex C (informative) Example of LCA seabass value-chain modelling .......................................................................22

Annex D (informative) Example of LCA fish meal value-chain modelling ...................................................................24

Annex E (informative) Example of LCA fish oil value-chain modelling for human consumption .......25

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22948:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 234, Fisheries and aquaculture.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
Introduction

This document contains product category rules for the calculation and communication of the carbon

footprint of finfish products. The CFP–PCR (carbon footprint of products – product category rules) is as

defined in ISO 14067:2018.

This document sets out rules for the calculation and communication of the carbon footprint of

finfish products. The overarching aim of the document is to provide a basis for reliable and accurate

information about the climate impact of the product. It is a pre-condition for a market-driven reduction

of climate impact of finfish products that dealers and consumers are able to choose the products with

the least climate impact. In addition to this, the document will provide:

— a basis for the development of tools and databases for calculating the carbon footprint of finfish

products;
— a basis for internal improvement efforts in the finfish industry;

— an improved knowledge base concerning the value chains of finfish products, their resource

consumption and climate impacts;

— a basis for further understanding the environmental impact of finfish products beyond climate

change alone.

This document is intended to function in line with ordinary market mechanisms. Providing credible

and transparent information about the products’ climate impact will pave the way for increased

demand and market value of the most climate-friendly finfish products. It will also provide incentives

to drive further improvements and reduce energy consumption and climate impacts from all links in

finfish value chains.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22948:2020(E)
Carbon footprint for seafood — Product category rules
(CFP–PCR) for finfish
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for calculating the carbon footprint specific to finfish product

category rules (CFP–PCR). This methodology builds on the requirements of International Standards for

life cycle assessment (LCA) and products’ carbon footprints.

This document is applicable to the calculation and communication of finfish products’ carbon

footprints from fishing and/or cultivation of feed ingredients to the consumption of finfish products.

It is applicable to the carbon footprints of products from both fisheries and aquaculture value chains.

This document used alone does not apply to specifying a product’s overall environmental or

sustainability characteristics.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14026:2017, Environmental labels and declarations — Principles, requirements and guidelines for

communication of footprint information

ISO 14040, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO 14067:2018, Greenhouse gases — Carbon footprint of products — Requirements and guidelines for

quantification

IPCC. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth

Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2013
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
3.1 Quantification of the carbon footprint of a product
3.1.1
carbon footprint of a product
CFP

sum of greenhouse gas (GHG) (3.4.1) emissions and GHG removals in a product system (3.2.13), expressed

as CO2 equivalents (3.1.2) and based on a life cycle assessment using the single impact category of

climate change

[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.1.1, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been deleted.]

3.1.2
carbon dioxide equivalent
CO equivalent
CO e

unit for comparing the radiative forcing (3.5.4) of a greenhouse gas (GHG) (3.4.1) to that of carbon dioxide

Note 1 to entry: Mass of a GHG is converted into CO equivalents by multiplying the mass of the GHG by the

corresponding global warming potential (GWP) or global temperature change potential (GTP) of that gas.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of GTP, CO equivalent is the unit for comparing the change in global mean surface

temperature caused by a GHG to the temperature change caused by CO .
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.2.2]
3.1.3
partial carbon footprint of a product
partial CFP

sum of greenhouse gas (GHG) (3.4.1) emissions and GHG removals of one or more selected process(es)

in a product system (3.2.13), expressed as CO2 equivalents (3.1.2) and based on the selected stages or

processes within the life cycle (3.2.10)

Note 1 to entry: A partial CFP is based on or compiled from data related to (a) specific process(es) or footprint

information modules, which is (are) part of a product system and can form the basis for quantification of a CFP.

More detailed information on information modules is given in ISO 14025:2006, 5.4.

Note 2 to entry: “Footprint information modules” is defined in ISO 14026:2017, 3.1.4.

Note 3 to entry: The results of the quantification of the partial CFP are documented in the CFP study report

expressed in mass of CO equivalent per declared unit (3.2.14).
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.1.2]
3.2 Products, product systems and processes
3.2.1
product
any goods or service
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.5.2]
3.2.2
product category
group of products (3.2.1) that have an equivalent function
3.2.3
primary product
primary output of commercial value from a production process
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
3.2.4
by-product

secondary output from a process, but of commercial value, that is produced in addition to a defined

primary product (3.2.3)
3.2.5
intermediate goods

raw materials or semi-finished goods, which may be recycled or recovered, that are fed into the product

system (3.2.13)
3.2.6
capital goods

products (3.2.1) that are not used up in consumption or production over a brief period but that retain

their function over a longer time
3.2.7
seafood

food, of which a significant proportion of the content derives directly from animals or plants that live in

the sea, lakes or watercourses
3.2.8
finfish

products (3.2.1) from fisheries and aquaculture as defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

[7]

Note 1 to entry: Finfish species and their yearly production volumes are available in FishStatJ and regularly

published by the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, available from: http:// www .fao .org/ fishery/

statistics/ en.
3.2.9
edible product

quantity of fish and fish products (3.2.1) as available for sale from a retailer, excluding packaging

3.2.10
life cycle

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system (3.2.13), from raw material acquisition or

generation from natural resources to final disposal
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.1]
3.2.11
value chain

range of activities or parties that create or receive value in the form of products (3.2.1) or services

3.2.12
carbon footprint of a product – product category rules
CFP–PCR

set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for CFP (3.1.1) or partial CFP (3.1.3) quantification

and communication for one or more product categories (3.2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.1.10, modified — Notes 1 and 2 to entry have been deleted.]

3.2.13
product system

collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined

functions, and which models the life cycle (3.2.10) of a product (3.2.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.28]
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
3.2.14
declared unit

quantity of a product (3.2.1) for use as a reference unit in the quantification of a partial carbon footprint

of a product (CFP) (3.1.3)
EXAMPLE Mass (1 kg of primary steel), volume (1 m of crude oil).
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.3.8]
3.2.15
functional unit
quantified performance of a product system (3.2.13) for use as a reference unit

Note 1 to entry: As the carbon footprint of a product (CFP) (3.1.1) treats information on a product (3.2.1) basis, an

additional calculation based on a declared unit (3.2.14) can be presented.
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.3.7]
3.2.16
allocation

partitioning the input or output flows of a process or a product system (3.2.13) between the product

system under study and one or more other product systems
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.17]
3.2.17
energy carrier

substance of phenomena that can be used to produce mechanical work or heat, or to operate chemical

or physical processes
[SOURCE: ISO 16818:2008, 3.75]
3.2.18
fishing gear

aids used to retrieve biological material from the sea or freshwater but that are not integrated parts of

the fishing vessel
3.2.19
refrigerant

medium that is used to maintain a specified temperature, e.g. in a room lower than ambient temperature,

through switching between aggregate states by the medium readily taking up or releasing heat

3.2.20
cut-off criterion

specification of the amount of material or energy flow or the level of environmental significance

associated with unit processes or product system (3.2.13) to be excluded from the study

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.18]
3.2.21
direct land use change
dLUC

change in human use or management of land within the organizational boundaries and as part of

upstream or downstream activities
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 14069:2013, 3.2.4]
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
3.2.22
indirect land use change
iLUC

change in the use or management of land that is a consequence of direct land use change (3.2.21) not

taking place within the operational boundaries of the greenhouse gas (GHG) (3.4.1) inventory

[SOURCE: ISO/TR 14069:2013, 3.2.5]
3.3 Data and data quality
3.3.1
primary data

quantified value of a process or an activity obtained from a direct measurement or a calculation based

on direct measurements

Note 1 to entry: Primary data need not necessarily originate from the product system (3.2.13) under study

because primary data could relate to a different but comparable product system to that being studied.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.2.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]
3.3.2
secondary data
data obtained from sources other than primary data (3.3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Such sources can include databases and published literature validated by competent authorities.

[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.2.4]
3.3.3
data quality

characteristics of data that relate to their ability to satisfy stated requirements

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.19]
3.3.4
statistical representativeness

characteristic of a survey that requires it to be sufficiently large, to not include systematic measurement

errors and to be based on a random sample of measured objects
3.4 Greenhouse gases
3.4.1
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits

radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s

surface, the atmosphere and clouds

Note 1 to entry: For a list of GHGs, see the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC)

Assessment Report.

Note 2 to entry: Water vapour and ozone are anthropogenic as well as natural GHGs, but are not included as

recognized GHGs due to difficulties, in most cases, in isolating the human-induced component of global warming

attributable to their presence in the atmosphere.

Note 3 to entry: The focus of this document is limited to long-lived GHGs and it therefore excludes climate effects

due to changes in surface reflectivity (albedo) and short-lived radiative forcing (3.5.4) agents (e.g. black carbon

and aerosols).
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.1.1, modified — Note 3 to entry has been added.]
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
3.4.2
greenhouse gas emission
GHG emission
release of a GHG (3.4.1) into the atmosphere
[SOURCE: ISO 14064-1:2018, 3.1.5]
3.5 Waste, storage and transport
3.5.1
waste
output flow of no commercial value from a process
3.5.2
landfill
more or less permanent storage of waste (3.5.1)
3.5.3
steaming
bi-directional movement of a vessel between a fishing ground and a landing place
3.5.4
radiative forcing

difference between incoming solar radiation on the Earth and outgoing thermal radiation from the Earth

Note 1 to entry: A positive radiative forcing tends to warm the surface and a negative radiative forcing tends to

cool the surface.
4 Calculation and communication requirements

This document only provides rules for calculating a product’s potential climate impact and cannot be

used in isolation for specifying a product’s overall environmental or sustainability characteristics.

However, the carbon footprint may be included as one of several indicators in the evaluation of a

product’s overall environmental or sustainability characteristics.
Calculation and communication of carbon footprints shall be:
— seen from an LCA perspective;
— seen in relation to functional units or a declared unit;
— iteratively approached;
— scientifically founded;
— relevant;
— complete;
— coherent;
— consistent;
— accurate;
— transparent;
— free of double counting.

For further information linked to each of these principles, see ISO 14067:2018, Clause 5. A particular

reference is made to the iterative characteristics of the LCA methodology.
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ISO 22948:2020(E)
5 Methodological requirements
5.1 General

The carbon footprint of fish and fish products shall be calculated in accordance with the established

methodology for LCAs as described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, and in accordance with the

methodology for calculating products’ carbon footprints in accordance with ISO 14067.

NOTE ISO/TS 14027 gives general guidance for all types of PCRs.
5.2 Functional unit or declared unit

The functional unit or declared unit of a system shall be selected in accordance with the scope and the

system boundary of the study. The functional unit of finfish shall capture GHG emissions of all life cycle

phases of the CFP, and shall be expressed per mass of edible product consumed by the final user. The

declared unit of finfish is more variable but nevertheless shall capture GHG emissions of the specific

life cycle phases of the partial CFP under assessment, and shall be expressed per mass of intermediate

product produced, e.g. live-mass or head-on-gutted finfish.

As supplementary information, the carbon footprint may be stated relative to other functional units or

declared units, e.g. CO equivalents per:
— kilogram of whole product;
— sold unit;
— unit of nutrient, such as protein, lipids or specific vitamins;
— energy unit (mega joules or kilocalories).

EXAMPLE 1 A partial CFP is conducted on an aquaculture production system. The LCA practitioner selected

cradle-to-farm gate system boundaries to specifically assess impacts occurring during hatchery and grow-out

production phases. The practitioner’s declared unit is consequently “1 t of live-mass farmed Atlantic salmon at

farm gate”.

EXAMPLE 2 A CFP is conducted on frozen cod fillet. To include all life cycle phases in the carbon footprint,

the practitioner selects cradle-to-grave system boundaries. This means that the CFP must consider and include

emissions starting with cod fisheries up to the consumption of cod fillet. The practitioner’s functional unit is

consequently “200 g frozen cod fillets consumed”.
5.3 Principles of data and methodological reporting

Methodologies, standards and guidance documents that are already recognized internationally and

adopted fo
...

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