Smart community infrastructures -- Guidelines on data exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructures

This document gives guidelines on principles and the framework to use for data exchange and sharing for entities with the authority to develop and operate community infrastructure. The guidelines in this document are applicable to communities of any size that are engaged in data exchange and sharing. The specific practices of data exchange and sharing of community infrastructures will depend on the characteristics of each community. NOTE 1 The concept of smartness is addressed in terms of data exchange and sharing, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities as defined in ISO 37100. NOTE 2 Annex A outlines useful case studies of data exchange and sharing for community infrastructure.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes -- Cadre directeur pour l'échange et le partage de données pour les infrastructures urbaines intelligentes

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Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Jan-2020
Completion Date
11-Feb-2020
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ISO 37156:2020 - Smart community infrastructures -- Guidelines on data exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructures
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37156
First edition
2020-02
Smart community infrastructures —
Guidelines on data exchange and
sharing for smart community
infrastructures
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Cadre directeur pour
l'échange et le partage de données pour les infrastructures urbaines
intelligentes
Reference number
ISO 37156:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to smart community infrastructure ................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to smart community infrastructure data ................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to data exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructure .................. 3

4 Principles for data exchange and sharing .................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Type and model for data exchange and sharing .................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Types of data ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.1 Metadata ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2.2 Reference data ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.3 Thematic data ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Concept model for infrastructure data ............................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Data dictionary and catalogue ................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Data spectrum ......................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.2 Closed data .........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.3 Shared data ........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5.4 Open data ............................................................................................................................................................................11

6 Opportunities for data exchange and sharing ....................................................................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Optimizing infrastructure services .....................................................................................................................................11

6.3 Promoting business .........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Facilitating urban planning .......................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Enabling proactive maintenance ..........................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Promoting environmental protection ..............................................................................................................................12

6.7 Improving safety and security ................................................................................................................................................12

7 Security of data exchange and sharing .......................................................................................................................................12

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Data security approach .................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Security strategy and policy .....................................................................................................................................................14

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3.2 Security strategy ...........................................................................................................................................................14

7.3.3 Security policy ...................................................................... ...........................................................................................14

7.3.4 Accountability and responsibility ..................................................................................................................15

7.4 Assessment of security risk s ....................................................................................................................................................15

7.4.1 Threat landscape ..........................................................................................................................................................15

7.4.2 Management of security risks ...........................................................................................................................16

8 Data privacy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Privacy guidelines and activities ..........................................................................................................................................17

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.2 Privacy principles .........................................................................................................................................................17

8.2.3 Consideration of city stakeholders................................................................................................................17

8.2.4 Specific thematic data ..............................................................................................................................................18

8.2.5 Operational guidelines ........................................................................................................................................... ..18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 37156:2020(E)

8.3 Privacy strategy and governance .........................................................................................................................................19

8.3.1 Senior management team .....................................................................................................................................19

8.3.2 Privacy policy ...................................................................................................................................................................19

8.3.3 Accountability and responsibility ..................................................................................................................19

8.3.4 Privacy processes .........................................................................................................................................................20

8.3.5 Privacy rights of individuals ...............................................................................................................................20

8.3.6 Complaints and appeals ..........................................................................................................................................20

9 Data roles and responsibilities...........................................................................................................................................................21

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2 Data roles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.3 Provenance of data ...........................................................................................................................................................................22

9.4 Accountability .......................................................................................................................................................................................22

9.5 New business models .....................................................................................................................................................................23

9.6 Standards framework for cooperative models .........................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) Case studies ....................................................................................................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
Introduction

Community is the crystallization of human technological progress, economic development and

social civilization. It is also the basic unit of human economic activities and regional production.

Community function and people’s daily life are highly dependent on different types of community

infrastructure. As the foundation of survival and development, community infrastructure includes

energy, water, transportation, waste and information and communication technology (ICT). This

community infrastructure provides convenience for urban residents. Therefore, the scientific and

effective management of community infrastructure is crucial. It affects the living conditions of citizens,

the efficiency of the social economy and the ecological safety of the community. Poor management

of community infrastructure causes problems such as environmental pollution, traffic congestion,

inadequate urban resources and a weak urban lifeline system. It is incompatible with sustainable

development.

Data provide the fundamental basis of effective management. It is a common problem that different

organizations or departments govern the data relating to community infrastructure. The existence

of information silos across different community infrastructure negatively affects effective and

efficient management. Therefore, strengthening the sharing of data is an important activity for smart

communities. Standardized data exchange and/or sharing will benefit business collaboration across

departments, organisations and communities; it will also improve service capabilities as regards

community infrastructure. Furthermore, it will base the management of communities on data and

improve outcomes, making communities safer, more hospitable and more liveable.

This document is a reference for governments and other enterprises, organizations and individuals

who have a responsibility or need to share data from community infrastructure. This document helps

to promote a foundation of information, eliminate isolated information silos and move toward the use

of data to make communities smarter. An example of the benefits of implementing this document is

the promotion of efficient cooperation by establishing mechanisms for information exchange among

different departments within local governments.

This document provides a set of community infrastructure data governance methods and a unified

framework of community infrastructure data exchange and sharing, underpinned by privacy and

security principles. The purposes of this document are:

— to provide intensive, efficient, convenient, ecological and secure infrastructure for community

infrastructure users, consumers or beneficiaries;

— to provide appropriate approaches to the exchange, monitoring, sharing and maintenance of

community infrastructure services.

This document relates to smart community infrastructures, and should be used alongside ISO 37101,

ISO 37120, ISO 37122, ISO 37123, ISO/TR 37150 and ISO/TS 37151. ISO 37101 contains the requirements

for the different types of data which are supported. ISO 37120 provides macro-guidance to cities on

how to achieve the United Nations sustainable development goals. Under the macro-guidance from

ISO 37101, this document, ISO/TR 37150 and ISO/TS 37151 constitute implementation guidance for

smart city infrastructure. This document focuses specifically on data exchange and/or sharing for

smart community infrastructures.

In addition, this document should be used with ISO 8000-110, ISO 22745-1 and ISO/IEC 30182.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37156:2020(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidelines on data
exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructures
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines on principles and the framework to use for data exchange and sharing

for entities with the authority to develop and operate community infrastructure.

The guidelines in this document are applicable to communities of any size that are engaged in data

exchange and sharing. The specific practices of data exchange and sharing of community infrastructures

will depend on the characteristics of each community.

NOTE 1 The concept of smartness is addressed in terms of data exchange and sharing, in accordance with

sustainable development and resilience of communities as defined in ISO 37100.

NOTE 2 Annex A outlines useful case studies of data exchange and sharing for community infrastructure.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

BSI PAS 183:2017, Smart cities — Guide to establishing a decision-making framework for sharing data and

information services
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to smart community infrastructure
3.1.1
community

group of people with an arrangement of responsibilities, activities and relationships

Note 1 to entry: In many, but not all, contexts, a community has a defined geographical boundary.

Note 2 to entry: A city is a type of community.
[SOURCE: ISO 37100:2016, 3.2.2]
3.1.2
community infrastructure

systems of facilities, equipment and services that support the operations and activities of communities

Note 1 to entry: Such community infrastructures include, but are not limited to, energy, water, transportation,

waste and information and communication technologies (ICT).
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 37100:2016, 3.6.1]
3.1.3
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives

Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to, sole-trader, company, corporation, firm,

enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated

or not, public or private.

Note 2 to entry: In this document, the concept of organization refers to an entity/institution inside the community

that is tasked with implementing the management system, for example the local government. The community

identifies an organization that it entrusts with the implementation of this document.

[SOURCE: ISO 37100:2016, 3.2.3]
3.1.4
smart community infrastructure

community infrastructure with enhanced technological performance that is designed, operated and

maintained to contribute to sustainable development and resilience of the community

[SOURCE: ISO 37100:2016, 3.6.2, modified — Notes to entry removed.]
3.1.5
smart community infrastructure data

data created, captured, collected or curated from the various sources of smart community infrastructure

3.2 Terms relating to smart community infrastructure data
3.2.1
availability
property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.7]
3.2.2
authenticity
property of being genuine
3.2.3
data

reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication,

interpretation or processing
Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by humans or by automatic means.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121272]
3.2.4
integrity
property of accuracy and completeness
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.36]
3.2.5
metadata
data defining and describing other data
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27050-1:2016, 3.19]
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
3.2.6
reference data

domain and community standardized data objects that define the set of permissible values to be used

to populate other data objects
[SOURCE: ISO 5127:2017, 3.1.10.19]
3.2.7
reliability
property of consistent intended behaviour and results
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 27000:2018, 3.55]
3.2.8
shared data

data that can be accessed within an existing software application as well as between different software

applications, that may be executed asynchronously or concurrently
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2122341, modified.]
3.2.9
thematic data

patterns of data within the data framework that are deemed important to support the provision of city

services and the four levels of insight in the city
[SOURCE: BSI PAS 183:2017]
3.2.10
data spectrum

differentiation of data assets on the basis of whether they are considered closed, shareable or open

[SOURCE: BSI PAS 183:2017]

3.3 Terms relating to data exchange and sharing for smart community infrastructure

3.3.1
data access
right, opportunity, means of finding, using or retrieving data
[SOURCE: ISO 15489-1:2016, 3.1, modified — original term was 'access'.]
3.3.2
data creator

organization that creates, captures, collects or transforms data for a city or services, for example

[SOURCE: BSI PAS 183:2017]
3.3.3
data owner

designated curator for the community infrastructure data related to a city service

[SOURCE: BSI PAS 183:2017]
3.3.4
data publisher

organization that performs the publication role for community infrastructure data

[SOURCE: BSI PAS 183:2017]
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ISO 37156:2020(E)
3.3.5
data exchange
accessing, transferring and archiving of data
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 13399-5:2014, 3.7, modified.]
3.3.6
data sharing

providing shared, exchangeable and extensible data to enable community infrastructure

3.3.7
risk
effect of uncertainty

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected – positive or negative.

Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or

knowledge of, an event, its consequence or likelihood.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3) and

consequences (ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.3), or a combination of these.

Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including

changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1.1) of occurrence.

[SOURCE: ISO 37100:2016, 3.4.12, modified.]
4 Principles for data exchange and sharing
4.1 General

This document shows the various possibilities for the use of data exchange and sharing for smart

community infrastructures. The expectations of communities related to the outputs from and the

use of data are often very high. However, it should be noted that there are many different constraints

related on the range and validity of the outputs of data exchange and sharing. Examples are data

reliability, availability, quality, complex relationships and temporal interpretation of data. Reasonable

expectations should be set by smart communities related to the impact achieved as a result of the data

exchange and sharing of community infrastructure data.
4.2 Principles
The following principles should be considered:

a) The community infrastructure data should be available to be exchanged and shared.

b) To be effective, the data should be of sufficient quality in order to be useful across smart community

infrastructure services, or by more than one organization.

c) The data owner has the accountability and responsibility to ensure the exchange and sharing of the

community infrastructure data is enabled.

d) The data creator should maintain the integrity of the community infrastructure data to be

exchanged or shared.

e) The security and privacy of the community infrastructure data should be continuously preserved.

f) The data should use spatial methods to achieve the positioning and control of urban infrastructure

objects.

g) The data should have temporal information to maintain changes to the community infrastructure

for any reason, such as societal, environmental, cultural, strategic and policy changes. Temporal

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ISO 37156:2020(E)

data allows timely interventions when required and supports the tracking of community

infrastructure changes to enable smart management and efficiency improvements.

h) A systematic approach to the exchange and sharing of data should be taken, with every data

attribute identifiable by a set of mechanisms to facilitate the interoperability of community

infrastructures.

i) The city, in its role as the curator of the exchange and sharing of infrastructure data, should ensure

that this activity is carried out in an equitable and ethical manner in order to ensure that all parties

are treated equally.
5 Type and model for data exchange and sharing
5.1 General

Smart community infrastructure includes energy, water, transport, ICT and waste services. The data

addressed in this document are those related to the infrastructures and the built environment which

support the community infrastructure.

The development and complexity of the smart community infrastructure and the planning, construction,

operation, management and evaluation of the smart community infrastructure information services

...

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