Smart community infrastructures -- Guidance on smart transportation for energy saving in transportation services

This document provides guidance on reducing the energy consumed by transportation for passengers, delivery items, freight and postal item services in cities and city zones. This document does not designate specific procedures to save energy but suggests energy-saving options to be adopted in transportation systems normally organized in different locations, on different scales and for different purposes. NOTE Some typical energy-saving options are listed in 6.2.2.

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes -- Recommandations sur le transport intelligent pour les économies d’énergie dans les services de transport

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Published
Publication Date
27-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Jan-2020
Completion Date
28-Feb-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37161
First edition
2020-02
Smart community infrastructures —
Guidance on smart transportation
for energy saving in transportation
services
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Recommandations sur le
transport intelligent pour les économies d’énergie dans les services de
transport
Reference number
ISO 37161:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO 37161:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 37161:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamentals .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Basic ideas and goals ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Location and objectives of smart transportation for energy saving ......................................................... 2

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Locations where smart transportation can be introduced.......................................................... 2

4.2.3 Objectives of introducing smart transportation ................................................................................... 2

5 Targets of smart transportation for energy saving .......................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Targets of smart transportation ............................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Target transportation modes ................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.2 Target technical and business contents of transportation .......................................................... 4

5.2.3 Target transportation services ............................................................................................................................ 6

6 Introduction of smart transportation for energy saving ............................................................................................ 9

6.1 Introduction of smart transportation ................................................................................................................................. 9

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.2 Services in the same transportation mode ............................................................................................... 9

6.1.3 Inter-modal services ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1.4 Services involving interface between public and private transportation ....................10

6.2 Selection of energy-saving options .....................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Energy-saving options .............................................................................................................................................10

6.2.3 Criteria and parameters to be considered in the selection of energy-saving

options ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.3 Adoption of energy-saving options ....................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Conformation of the performance of smart transportation after introduction ...........................11

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 Monitoring of smart transportation performance when applying more

than one energy-saving option .........................................................................................................................11

7 Maintenance of the quality of smart transportation for energy saving ...................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Parameters for comparing smart transportation performance ................................................................12

7.3 Modification of smart transportation...............................................................................................................................12

8 Long-term optimization of smart transportation for energy saving alongside

generational and social changes .......................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Optimization of smart transportation for current and future cities and city zones ................12

8.3 Maintaining/discarding adopted energy-saving options ...............................................................................12

8.4 Reselection of energy-saving options ...............................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Typical energy-saving performance in railway operation by

modifying speed profiles ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

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ISO 37161:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO 37161:2020(E)
Introduction

Energy saving is one of the typical and measurable issues to be addressed in every city in the world.

Energy is consumed whenever citizens move within and between cities by using transportation

services for their daily living and business activities. This energy consumption volume is higher than

that of other city functions such as water and ICT systems, as transportation systems convey a large

number of passengers and delivery items or freight – which can sometimes be enormous – resulting in

large, heavy vehicles travelling at high speed. Smart transportation is not necessarily an infrastructure

but definitely a solution to existing or future city issues, as explained in ISO 37154. Transportation

operation itself will be targeted and expected to produce drastic energy savings, but there is also large

energy consumption and waste in transport procedures besides operation. Smart transportation for

energy saving is, therefore, an important factor in enhancing city performance, quality and potential.

The principle of smart transportation for energy saving depends not only on transportation modes but

also on methods of traction for running transportation vehicles, because energy is consumed mainly

when driving vehicles. In addition to vehicle operation, energy is used to support dispatch operations

and organize entire transportation systems. Therefore, to successfully reduce energy consumption, the

entire structure of transportation systems needs to be studied. This would involve identifying where

energy can be saved in the system and the people who can make arrangements for or directly contribute

to energy saving. Different energy-saving options are available. By combing these methods, energy can

be more effectively saved in transportation which consists of a variety of technical and service fields

supporting the system.

This document describes what smart transportation for energy saving targets and how it works in

transportation systems, according to the general guidelines on smart transportation of ISO 37154,

which fully explain the structures, aspects and features of transportation operation, services and

technical/business content from the different viewpoints of those who use, plan and provide or operate

transportation systems. This document also identifies specific ways to save energy consumed in

transportation operation and services.

In the development of this document, ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in addressing

sustainability issues.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37161:2020(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on smart
transportation for energy saving in transportation services
1 Scope

This document provides guidance on reducing the energy consumed by transportation for passengers,

delivery items, freight and postal item services in cities and city zones.

This document does not designate specific procedures to save energy but suggests energy-saving

options to be adopted in transportation systems normally organized in different locations, on different

scales and for different purposes.
NOTE Some typical energy-saving options are listed in 6.2.2.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
transportation energy
energy consumed in transportation operations and services
3.2
city zone

area that comprises a single core city or more than one core city connected or related for/with business,

economic and political activities

Note 1 to entry: A city zone comprising more than one core city is called a megalopolis. Some well-known

examples are BosWash (USA), Blue Banana (Europe) and the Tokaido Megalopolis (Japan).

4 Fundamentals
4.1 Basic ideas and goals

As stated in ISO 37154, any smart transportation has basic ideas and goals. They are considered

according to the criteria listed below:
— to improve the status of a city;
— to lower environmental load;

— to realize transportation facilities based on concrete planning (e.g. payable budget scales,

environmental harmonization);
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ISO 37161:2020(E)

— to preserve and enhance scenic, aesthetic, historic, community and environmental resources.

Smart transportation for energy saving in transportation operation and services in cities and city zones

should also be organized to achieve the basic ideas and goals derived from the criteria.

Smart transportation for energy saving contributes to the United Nations Sustainable Development

Goals, specifically goal 3, “Good health and well-being,” goal 7, “Affordable and clean energy,” goal

8, “Decent work and economic growth,” goal 9, “Industry, innovation and infrastructure,” goal 11,

“Sustainable cities and communities,” goal 12, “Responsible consumption and production,” goal 13,

“Climate action” and goal 15, “Life on land.”
4.2 Location and objectives of smart transportation for energy saving
4.2.1 General

For successful energy saving through smart transportation, transportation organizations and

structures should be studied in order to properly introduce smart transportation in suitable locations in

transportation systems. Transportation in cities and city zones consists of single carriers, independent

service lines, local transportation systems and/or large transportation networks. Thus, energy-saving

options can be adopted in all of these elements as well as in entire transportation systems.

Besides transportation system route extents, the energy to be saved is not necessarily only the energy

consumed by running transportation vehicles but also that used indirectly or additionally for vehicle

operation. This includes the energy used for lighting, air-conditioning, passenger access assistance

equipment in stations, ticketing and ticket inspection systems, passenger addressing systems, vehicle

accommodation, transportation operation and maintenance systems (e.g. signalling, communication,

powering and safety systems, all being work done at maintenance facilities and on service lines) and

waste disposal and recycling of batteries if sustainable and economically viable.

4.2.2 Locations where smart transportation can be introduced

Smart transportation for energy saving can be introduced in the following locations:

— within a region of a city or city zone;
— on routes that connect regions;
— on interfaces of transportation inside/outside cities and city zones.

For transportation customers, the factors that shape the locational needs of smart transportation are:

— current costs of the transportation system;
— environmental impact of current transportation activities.
4.2.3 Objectives of introducing smart transportation
Smart transportation can be introduced for the following purposes:

— to transport people, freight and goods safely, reliably, conveniently, efficiently and economically;

— to provide transportation services that satisfy demand;

— to reduce environmental impact without reducing the quality of the transportation services;

— to improve the efficiency of connections between different modes of transportation;

— to reduce the total energy usage of the transportation infrastructure;

— to make transportation operation economically sustainable while ensuring it is affordable and

accessible to all customers;
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ISO 37161:2020(E)

— to improve communication to the public about all aspects of transportation services.

These objectives can be achieved by ensuring the transportation system’s performance and ability to:

— convey passengers, delivery items and freight
— safely;
— when they are in a large lot;
— at one time;
— on time;
— as planned;
— at a low cost;
— provide dense networks for transport;
— provide frequent services for transport;

— provide successful and easy connection for transport between different transportation systems

or modes;
— control total energy saving/consumption for transportation;

— lower environmental load without reducing the service quality of transport operations.

An integrated urban transportation plan enables:

— the transport of people and goods safely, reliably, efficiently and economically;

— the provision of networks appropriate for transportation needs, especially investing in and

improving existing infrastructures;
— the creation of frequent services for transport;

— the provision of efficient connections for transport between different transportation systems

or modes;
— the lowering of total energy usage/consumption for transportation;

— the lowering of environmental impact without degradation in service quality of transport operation;

— the economically stable operation of transportation with fares/fees reasonable or affordable for

local citizens.
5 Targets of smart transportation for energy saving
5.1 General

As discussed in 4.2, energy saving targets should be carefully determined when introducing smart

transportation in transportation system structures. ISO 37154 describes these structures according

to the transportation modes used. Each transportation mode has specific transportation technical

and business contents that provide characteristic transportation services to customers. Thus, smart

transportation for energy saving targets all or part of the structures featured by transportation

services, transportation technical and business contents and transportation modes.

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ISO 37161:2020(E)
5.2 Targets of smart transportation
5.2.1 Target transportation modes

Smart transportation for energy saving targets the following transportation modes, which are also the

transportation modes of smart transportation in the general meaning defined in ISO 37154:2017, 3.7.

— rail;
— commuter buses, bus rapid transit and intercity buses;
— trucks;
— ferries;
— pipelines;
— air vehicles;
— walking;
— bicycles;
— motorbikes;
— automobiles;
— boats;

— transportation devices assisting passengers, delivery of items and freight for moving in stations

and terminals (e.g. elevators, escalators, moving walkways, conveyors);

— vehicles or systems and their additional instruments assisting mobility-impaired persons (e.g.

scooters, Segways).
5.2.2 Target technical and business contents of transportation
5.2.2.1 General

Any transportation mode has specific technical and business contents. Smart transportation for energy

saving can be introduced in transportation organized for public or private purposes in cities and city

zones by targeting the technical and business contents dependent on the transportation mode targeted.

5.2.2.2 Public transportation

Public transportation is organized for specific purposes, or what (e.g. people, items) the transportation

conveys and from where to where. Smart transportation targets the technical and business contents of

the transportation mode used in public transportation.
a) Rail mode

— passengers, delivery of items and freight services (e.g. customer services at stations and freight

yards, refrigeration for delivery items and freight);

— accommodation preparation and management (e.g. water supply, cleaning, air-conditioning,

coach brightness adjustment);
— train operations (e.g. scheduling, dispatching, refuelling, train crew);

— rolling stock (e.g. accommodation, maintenance, refrigeration for delivery of items and freight);

— power/signalling;
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ISO 37161:2020(E)
— communication for train operations;
— facilities (e.g. stations, tracks, civil engineering structures);
— safety (e.g. surveillance);

— environment (e.g. noise, vibration, pollutants and greenhouse gas emission, sunlight);

— information availability (e.g. real-time information provision to passengers and senders/

recipients on service frequency, routing, destinations and cost).
b) Bus/truck mode

— passengers, delivery of items and freight services (e.g. customer services at bus stations and

delivery offices, refrigeration for delivery items and freight);

— bus and truck operations (e.g. scheduling, dispatching, drivers and conductors);

— refuelling/power charging;
— signalling and bus/truck tracking systems;
— communication for bus and truck operations;

— vehicles (e.g. accommodation, maintenance, refrigeration for delivery of items and freight);

— facilities (e.g. bus stations, freight yards, taxi stands, bus and truck lanes on public roads, bus

tracks, civil engineering structures for bus and truck operations);

— information availability (e.g. real-time information provision to passengers and senders/

recipients on service frequency, routing, destinations and cost).
c) Ferry mode

— passengers, delivery of items and freight services (e.g. customer services at ports, refrigeration

for delivery items and freight);
— ferry operations (e.g. scheduling, dispatching, crew);
— refuelling and power charging;
— signalling;
— communication for ferry operations;

— vessels (e.g. accommodation, maintenance, refrigeration for delivery of items and freight);

— facilities (e.g. ports, ferry terminals, civil engineering structures for ferry operation);

— information availability (e.g. real-time information provision to passengers and senders/

recipients on service frequency, routing, destinations and cost).
d) Air vehicle mode

— passengers, delivery of items and freight services (e.g. customer services at airports, refrigeration

for delivery of items and freight);
— refuelling and power charging;
— air vehicle operations (e.g. scheduling, dispatching, crew);
— aircraft (e.g. pilotless aircraft);

— facilities (e.g. airports, civil engineering structures for aircraft operation);

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ISO 37161:2020(E)

— information availability (e.g. real-time information provision to passengers and senders/

recipients on service frequency, routing, destinations and cost).
5.2.2.3 Private transportation

For private transportation, smart transportation targets the services provided to the owners, drivers

or operators of the transportation by the following responsible governmental or government-related

organizations or manufacturers:

— road administrators (e.g. traffic surveillance, road maintenance, green spaces or complete streets

dedicated for walking and bicycles, streetlights, lighting for signboards, toll collection);

— transportation authorities (e.g. vehicle-sharing services including bicycles, motorbikes and

automobiles);
— channel administrators (e.g. lighthouses, navigation aids);
— air-traffic authorities (e.g. airway beacons);
— police departments (e.g. traffic lights);
— fire departments;
— vehicle, boat and air vehicle manufacturers.
5.2.2.4 Public transportation for personal use
Smart transportation also targets the following transportation for personal use:

— rental vehicles (e.g. bicycles, motorbikes, automobiles, batteries and recharging devices for the

vehicles).
5.2.3 Target transportation services
5.2.3.1 General

Smart transportation for energy saving targets the transportation services listed in the following

subclauses, which are provided by transportation’s technical and business contents.

5.2.3.2 Public transportation
a) Passenger services
— train, bus, ferry and air vehicle operations;
— safety for driving;
— weather forecast and information;
— communication during emergencies;
— travel planning;

— easy access to stations, ferry terminals and airports (e.g. pathways with roofs, arrangements for

access to connect stations, bus stops, ferry terminals and airports, introduction of passengers);

— ticketing;
— ticket inspection (e.g. at stations, in coaches);
— fare/fee collection;
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ISO 37161:2020(E)
— connections and changing;

— inter-modal connections (e.g. rail and buses or trucks, rail and ferries, buses or trucks and

ferries);

— connecting operations, including run-through vehicle operations (e.g. between different rail

carriers, between sections with different-gauge tracks);

— information provision and indication (e.g. announcements in stations and coaches, multiple

languages, frequency, timing, indication of operation and connection conditions);

— control of passenger flows and goods delivery routes in stations, ferry terminals and airports;

— assistance to the disabled, the elderly and those with physical impairments;
— food business (e.g. cafeterias, restaurants, dining cars, minibars on trains);
— shop operations;
— advertisements;
— internet connection;

— convenient location of stations, bus stops, ferry terminals and airports in a city;

— appropriate distances between stations and bus stops;

— business introduced into transportation facilities other than transportation services (e.g.

nurseries, polling places);

— coach accommodation (e.g. pass, seat and instrument arrangements/furnishings, service

equipment);
— delay minimization;

— optimization of the passenger capacity of coaches or train sets, buses, ferries and air vehicles;

— electronic fare/fee payment (e.g. through banks, digital or QR-code payment);
— variety of choices of travelling means;

— arrangements at time of emergency (e.g. providing detours by means of other carriers or

transportation modes);

— emergency measures (e.g. fire apparatus, rescue vehicles, firefighters, ambulances, escape

routes, preparation for terrorist attacks, natural disasters and traffic accidents);

— fare adjustment for accidents (e.g. ticket refund, free change of tickets, extension of ticket

validity period);
— fare selection depending on a variety of customer demands and trends;
— flat-rate fare in a specific zone;
— freight (fare) pool systems;
— affordable fares.
b) Delivery of item and freight services
— train, bus, truck, ferry and air vehicle operations;
— safety in driving;
— weather forecast and information;
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ISO 37161:2020(
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