Smart community infrastructures -- Smart transportation for parking lot allocation in cities

This document specifies procedures for installing and organizing smart transportation for parking lot allocation for drivers in cities. It is intended to apply to cities, especially those having a shortage or low availability of parking lots. This smart transportation aims to provide a solution to the city issue of drivers having difficulty in quickly finding parking lots with available spaces. It also aims to address other city issues such as traffic accidents, congestion and energy consumption. This document clarifies the concept and goals of smart transportation by referring to the technical aspects suggested by ITU-T Y.4456[6].

Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes -- Transport intelligent pour l'attribution des aires de stationnement dans les villes

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Sep-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
07-Jul-2020
Completion Date
06-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 37163
First edition
2020-09
Smart community infrastructures —
Smart transportation for parking lot
allocation in cities
Infrastructures urbaines intelligentes — Transport intelligent pour
l'attribution des aires de stationnement dans les villes
Reference number
ISO 37163:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concept of smart transportation for parking lot allocation .................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Applicable city issues and expected advantages........................................................................................................ 3

5 Planning t o implement smart transportation for parking lot allocation ..................................................3

6 Adoption and operation of smart transportation for parking lot allocation ........................................4

6.1 Objectives..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Target vehicles ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Procedure to adopt smart transportation ....................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.2 Information elements to be collected ............................................................................................................ 4

6.3.3 Information collection................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3.4 Data transfer ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.5 Information provided to drivers ........................................................................................................................ 6

6.3.6 Allocation of parking lots ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3.7 Collection of parking fees ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.8 Provision of information helpful to parking lot allocation management ....................... 7

7 Data exchange and sharing management ................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Data security control with smart transportation for parking lot allocation .........................................8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Privacy and data protection ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Maintenance of the quality of smart transportation for parking lot allocation .................................9

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Parameters to be observed ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Modification of smart transportation.................................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
Introduction

Automobiles satisfy people’s desire to move by themselves at their convenience to anywhere they need

or want to go, as explained in ISO 37154. Most cities, especially those that were or are being developed

rapidly in a short time, have the same experiences and issues currently or in their history relating to

difficulties in finding parking lots or car parks with available spaces.

The limited number of parking lots in a city should be shared by more vehicles more frequently.

The low availability of parking lots has unexpectedly caused other city issues besides the difficulty

in finding parking lots with available spaces in some cities. It has resulted in irritated drivers, time

being wasted and increased fuel consumption. Drivers’ attention is taken up while searching, causing

collisions to happen more often. Such incidents and slow driving result in traffic congestion. While

driving an automobile at a low speed, more pollutants, particle materials (PMs) and greenhouse gases

are emitted into the atmosphere. There is nothing positive about the low availability of parking lots in

a city. Citizens, including drivers and people living next to public roads, experience such situations all

the time.
[6]

ITU-T Y.4456 suggests ideal parking lot facilities and outlines technical aspects regarding unoccupied

parking spaces, parking space reservation, vehicle automatic access control, self-service parking fee

payment and vehicle reverse search, from the viewpoint of enhancement of conventional parking

lot services. The concept and goals of smart transportation designated in this document to allocate

parking lots to drivers are different from those of ITU-T Y.4456, which mentions parking lot reservation

work but lacks the concept and procedure to increase parking lot availability that smart transportation

aims at for providing more parking lots to drivers. Finding parking lots that have not yet been offered

to the public and allocating to drivers all parking lots already available and recently found will basically

increase the availability. ITU-T Y.4456 manages only parking lots currently available to the public. Thus,

the issue of parking lot shortage cannot be completely solved. From the viewpoint of city development

investments, civil engineering construction is planned, designed, arranged and operated with limited

budgets. Digging up and activating unrecognized or unused or unoffered parking lots is still a realistic

and easy way to increase the total capacity of parking lots in a city without additional installation. This

strategy avoids capital cost preparation for unnecessary parking lot construction.

The availability of parking lots can be increased by another method that effectively allocates and

reallocates parking spaces to more drivers more frequently by sharing data as described in ISO 37156

and part of ITU-T Y.4456. With data exchange networks, information on which parking lots have spaces,

until what time they are available or unavailable, where they are located and so on is easily collected

and immediately shared, resulting in increasing parking lot availability.

Nowadays, protection of people’s privacy is a top priority in any service. This document also describes

how such privacy should be protected in the services by applying high security, which is not mentioned

in ITU-T Y.4456.

This document describes the concept of smart transportation to efficiently allocate parking lots

to drivers in cities and outlines installation and organization of the services. This document also

contributes to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, in particular goal 3: “Good

health and well-being”, goal 7: “Affordable and clean energy”, goal 8: “Decent work and economic growth”,

goal 9: “Industry, innovation and infrastructure”, goal 11: “Sustainable cities and communities”, goal 12:

“Responsible consumption and production”, goal 13: “Climate action” and goal 15: “Life on land”.

In the development of this document, ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in addressing

sustainability issues.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 37163:2020(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Smart transportation
for parking lot allocation in cities
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures for installing and organizing smart transportation for parking lot

allocation for drivers in cities. It is intended to apply to cities, especially those having a shortage or low

availability of parking lots. This smart transportation aims to provide a solution to the city issue of

drivers having difficulty in quickly finding parking lots with available spaces. It also aims to address

other city issues such as traffic accidents, congestion and energy consumption.

This document clarifies the concept and goals of smart transportation by referring to the technical

[6]
aspects suggested by ITU-T Y.4456 .
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
parking lot
cark park
area to park vehicles which are allowed to run on public roads

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles are listed in ISO 37154:2017, 2.5.4, but this document targets automobile-size vehicles

privately or personally used (e.g. automobiles, tuk-tuks, manually driven cycle-rickshaws).

Note 2 to entry: 'Parking lot' is preferred to 'car park' in this document as it is more widely used.

3.2
parking lot allocation

suggesting spaces in parking lots (3.1) to drivers by finding the best match between drivers’ requests or

parking preferences and current or expected parking lot availability

Note 1 to entry: Drivers’ requests include access routes from current locations, preferred places to park, preferred

time to start parking, parking duration, the number of vehicles to be parked and vehicle characteristics, limits of

parking fees payable and payment methods.
3.3
parking lot allocation system

arrangement for parking lot allocation (3.2) using databases to exchange and share information

including parking lot location, parking time recording, navigation to parking lots (3.1) and suggestions

for parking fee payment procedures and necessary services
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
4 Concept of smart transportation for parking lot allocation
4.1 General

This subclause describes the general criteria required for smart transportation for parking lot allocation

in cities. To solve the city issue of drivers having difficulty in finding parking lots with available spaces,

the allocation should be organized and performed to provide more opportunities for drivers to quickly

find available spaces and book in parking lots that meet their demands and preferences. This service can

be made possible by increasing parking lot availability in a city. Smart transportation has its own goals

and aspects different from those of ITU-T Y.4456. Parking lot availability in a city should be increased:

— to provide a greater absolute number of parking lots to citizens and city visitors;

— to offer parking lots to citizens and city visitors more frequently.
To ensure its high performance, smart transportation has:

— high security for driver and parking lot owner identification and privacy, parking fee payment, data

transfer and avoidance of rule violations by illegal smart transportation users;

— terminal-to-terminal communication that is decentralized to achieve fast processing and reduce

organizational, operational and maintenance costs while maintaining high security.

Since smart transportation results in drivers taking less time to find parking lots with available spaces,

it indirectly achieves the following additional benefits by increasing the number of vehicles in a city

within the allowable parking lot capacity increased by smart transportation:
— more visitors can be accommodated by a city;
— business can be created and introduced to a city;
— the number of vehicle collisions and traffic accidents can be reduced;
— traffic congestion can be eased;
— discomfort to drivers and people living next to busy roads can be supressed;

NOTE Slow driving could make drivers bored due to the monotonous operation and irritate residents

with low frequency noise and vibration.

— synergy between parking pricing and policy measures can reduce the time to search and complete

parking.

There is a variety in the kinds of vehicles that are headed for their individual destinations at different

locations in a city. The establishment of safe and steady data exchange and sharing platforms is key to

successfully organizing parking lot allocation services. Through communication based on the network,

information required to immediately allocate parking lots appropriately to drivers is processed and

shared among drivers and parking lot owners who have joined a parking lot allocation system. Drivers’

requests should best match the conditions of parking lots that currently have spaces or will be available

in the time frame requested or preferred by drivers.

To support communication and data sharing, instruments and equipment such as detectors or sensors,

telecommunication devices, signboards and displays should also work effectively. Communication and

data sharing should satisfy the following conditions:
— communication directly from terminal to terminal;

NOTE A “terminal” is an end instrument or equipment used for communication [e.g. mobile phone,

interphone, tablet, PC, point-of-sale (POS) system, onboard unit].

— communication without time lag (e.g. fewer processing steps for users’ identification);

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 37163:2020(E)
— traceable communication;
— offers of large selections for parking lots;
— easy management of the services.

Solar parking lots aim at coupling clean solar electricity and electric mobility deployment.

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 37163
ISO/TC 268/SC 1
Smart community infrastructures —
Secretariat: JISC
Guidance on smart transportation for
Voting begins on:
2020­05­11 parking lot allocation in cities
Voting terminates on:
2020­07­06
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Concept of smart transportation for parking lot allocation .................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Applicable city issues and expected advantages........................................................................................................ 3

5 Planning t o implement smart transportation for parking lot allocation ..................................................3

6 Adoption and operation of smart transportation for parking lot allocation ........................................4

6.1 Objectives..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Target vehicles ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Procedure to adopt smart transportation ....................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.2 Information elements to be collected ............................................................................................................ 4

6.3.3 Information collection................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3.4 Data transfer ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.5 Information provided to drivers ........................................................................................................................ 6

6.3.6 Allocation of parking lots ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.3.7 Collection of parking fees ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.8 Provision of information helpful to parking lot allocation management ....................... 7

7 Data exchange and sharing management ................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Data security control with smart transportation for parking lot allocation .........................................8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Privacy and data protection ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

9 Maintenance of the quality of smart transportation for parking lot allocation .................................9

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.2 Parameters to be observed ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Modification of smart transportation.................................................................................................................................. 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 268, Sustainable cities and communities,

Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
Introduction

Automobiles satisfy people’s desire to move by themselves at their convenience to anywhere they need

or want to go, as explained in ISO 37154. Most cities, especially those that were or are being developed

rapidly in a short time, have the same experiences and issues currently or in their history relating to

difficulties in finding spaces in parking lots or car parks.

The limited number of parking lots in a city should be shared by more vehicles more frequently. The

low availability of parking lots has unexpectedly caused other city issues besides the difficulty in

finding a space in a parking lot in some cities. It has resulted in irritated drivers, time being wasted and

increased fuel consumption. Drivers’ attention is taken up while searching, causing collisions to happen

more often. Such incidents and slow driving result in traffic congestion. While driving an automobile

at a low speed, more pollutants, particle materials (PMs) and greenhouse gases are emitted into the

atmosphere. There is nothing positive about the low availability of parking lots in a city. Citizens,

including drivers and people living next to public roads, experience such situations all the time.

[6]

ITU­T Y.4456 suggests ideal parking lot facilities and outlines technical aspects regarding unoccupied

parking spaces, parking space reservation, vehicle automatic access control, self­service parking fee

payment and vehicle reverse search, from the viewpoint of enhancement of conventional parking

lot services. The concept and goals of smart transportation designated in this document to allocate

parking lots to drivers are different from those of ITU­T Y.4456, which mentions parking lot reservation

work but lacks the concept and procedure to increase parking lot availability that smart transportation

aims at for providing more parking lots to drivers. Finding parking lots that have not yet been offered

to the public and allocating to drivers all parking lots already available and recently found will basically

increase the availability. ITU-T Y.4456 manages only parking lots currently available to the public. Thus,

the issue of parking lot shortage cannot be completely solved. From the viewpoint of city development

investments, civil engineering construction is planned, designed, arranged and operated with limited

budgets. Digging up and activating unrecognized or unused/unoffered parking lots is still a realistic

and easy way to increase the total capacity of parking lots in a city without additional installation. This

strategy avoids capital cost preparation for unnecessary parking lot construction.

The availability of parking lots can be increased by another method that effectively allocates and

reallocates parking spaces to more drivers more frequently by sharing data as described in ISO 37156

and part of ITU-T Y.4456. With data exchange networks, information on which parking lots have spaces,

until what time they are available or unavailable, where they are located and so on is easily collected

and immediately shared, resulting in increasing parking lot availability.

Nowadays, protection of people’s privacy is a top priority in any service. This document also describes

how such privacy should be protected in the services by applying high security, which is not mentioned

in ITU­T Y.4456.

This document describes the concept of smart transportation to efficiently allocate parking lots

to drivers in cities and outlines installation and organization of the services. This document also

contributes to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, in particular goal 3: “Good

health and well-being”, goal 7: “Affordable and clean energy”, goal 8: “Decent work and economic growth”,

goal 9: “Industry, innovation and infrastructure”, goal 11: “Sustainable cities and communities”, goal 12:

“Responsible consumption and production”, goal 13: “Climate action” and goal 15: “Life on land”.

In the development of this document, ISO Guide 82 has been taken into account in addressing

sustainability issues.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
Smart community infrastructures — Guidance on smart
transportation for parking lot allocation in cities
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures for installing and organizing smart transportation for parking lot

allocation for drivers in cities. It is intended to apply to cities, especially those having a shortage or

low availability of parking lots. This smart transportation aims to provide a solution to the city issue

of drivers having difficulty in quickly finding spaces in parking lots. It also aims to address other city

issues such as traffic accidents, congestion and energy consumption.

This document clarifies the concept and goals of smart transportation by referring to the technical

[6]
aspects suggested by ITU-T Y.4456 .
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
parking lot
cark park
area to park vehicles which are allowed to run on public roads

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles are listed in ISO 37154:2017, 2.5.4, but this document targets automobile-size vehicles

privately or personally used (e.g. automobiles, tuk-tuks, manually driven cycle-rickshaws).

Note 2 to entry: 'Parking lot' is preferred to 'car park' in this document as it is more widely used.

3.2
parking lot allocation

suggesting spaces in parking lots (3.1) to drivers by finding the best match between drivers’ requests or

parking preferences and current or expected parking lot availability

Note 1 to entry: Drivers’ requests include access routes from current locations, preferred places to park, preferred

time to start parking, parking duration, the number of vehicles to be parked and vehicle characteristics, limits of

parking fees payable and payment methods.
3.3
parking lot allocation system

arrangement for parking lot allocation (3.2) using databases to exchange and share information

including parking lot location, parking time recording, navigation to parking lots (3.1) and suggestions

for parking fee payment procedures and necessary services
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 37163:2020(E)
4 Concept of smart transportation for parking lot allocation
4.1 General

This subclause describes the general criteria required for smart transportation for parking lot

allocation in cities. To solve the city issue of drivers having difficulty in finding spaces in parking lots,

the allocation should be organized and performed to provide more opportunities for drivers to quickly

find and reserve spaces in parking lots that meet their demands and preferences. This service can be

made possible by increasing parking lot availability in a city. Smart transportation has its own goals

and aspects different from those of ITU-T Y.4456. Parking lot availability in a city should be increased:

— to provide a greater absolute number of parking lots to citizens and city visitors;

— to offer parking lots to citizens and city visitors more frequently.
To ensure its high performance, smart transportation has:

— high security for driver and parking lot owner identification and privacy, parking fee payment, data

transfer and avoidance of rule violations by illegal smart transportation users;

— terminal­to­terminal communication that is decentralized to achieve fast processing and reduce

organizational, operational and maintenance costs while maintaining high security.

Since smart transportation results in drivers taking less time to find spaces in parking lots, it indirectly

achieves the following additional benefits by increasing the number of vehicles in a city within the

allowable parking lot capacity increased by smart transportation:
— more visitors can be accommodated by a city;
— business can be created and introduced to a city;
— the number of vehicle collisions and traffic accidents can be reduced;
— traffic congestion can be eased;
— discomfort to drivers and people living next to busy roads can be supressed;

NOTE Slow driving could make drivers bored due to the monotonous operation and irritate residents

with low frequency noise and vibration.

— synergy between parking pricing and policy measures can reduce the time to search and complete

parking.

There is a variety in the kinds of vehicles that are headed for their individual destinations at different

locations in a city. The establishment of safe and steady data exchange and sharing platforms is key to

successfully organizing parking lot allocation services. Through communication based on the network,

information required to immediately allocate parking lots appropriately to drivers is processed and

shared among drivers and parking lot owners who have joined a parking lot allocation system. Drivers’

requests should best match the conditions of parking lots that currently have spaces or will be available

in the time frame requested or preferred by drivers.

To support communication and data sharing, instruments and equipment such as detectors or sensors,

telecommunication devices, signboards and displays should also work effectively. Communication and

data sharing should satisfy the following conditions:
— communication directly from terminal to terminal;

NOTE A “terminal” is an end instrument or equipment used for communication [e.g. mobile phone,

interphone, tablet, PC, point-of-sale (POS) system, onboard unit].

— communication without time lag (e.g. fewer processing steps for users’ identification);

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
--------
...

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