Information technology -- Small computer system interface (SCSI)

Technologies de l'information -- Interface de petit système d'ordinateur (SCSI)

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Published
Publication Date
19-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Dec-2019
Completion Date
20-Dec-2019
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ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 - Information technology -- Small computer system interface (SCSI)
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ISO/IEC 14776-481
Edition 1.0 2019-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) –
Part 481: Security features for SCSI commands (SFSC)
ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019-12(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14776-481
Edition 1.0 2019-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Information technology – Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) –
Part 481: Security features for SCSI commands (SFSC)
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 35.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-7663-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC
14776-481
Information technology -
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) -
Part 481: Security features for SCSI commands (SFSC)
Reference
ISO/IEC 14776-481
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 - 2 -
Contents
Page

FOREWORD..................................................................................................................................................... 9

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................. 11

1 Scope........................................................................................................................................................... 12

2 Normative references................................................................................................................................... 12

3 Terms and definitions, symbols, abbreviations, and conventions ................................................................ 14

3.1 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 14

3.2 Abbreviations and symbols................................................................................................................. 24

3.2.1 Abbreviations................................................................................................................................... 24

3.2.2 Symbols........................................................................................................................................... 25

3.2.3 Mathematical operators ................................................................................................................... 25

3.3 Keywords............................................................................................................................................ 25

3.4 Editorial conventions .......................................................................................................................... 27

3.5 Numeric and character conventions ................................................................................................... 27

3.5.1 Numeric conventions ....................................................................................................................... 27

3.5.2 Units of measure ............................................................................................................................. 28

3.5.3 Byte encoded character strings conventions................................................................................... 29

3.6 Bit and byte ordering .......................................................................................................................... 29

4 Security features model common to all device types................................................................................... 31

4.1 Security features for SCSI devices..................................................................................................... 31

4.1.1 Security associations....................................................................................................................... 31

4.1.1.1 Principles of SAs .......................................................................................................................... 31

4.1.1.2 SA parameters.............................................................................................................................. 32

4.1.1.3 Creating an SA ............................................................................................................................. 34

4.1.2 Key derivation functions .................................................................................................................. 35

4.1.2.1 KDFs overview ............................................................................................................................. 35

4.1.2.2 IKEv2-based iterative KDF ........................................................................................................... 36

4.1.2.3 HMAC-based KDFs ...................................................................................................................... 36

4.1.2.4 AES-XCBC-PRF-128 IKEv2-based iterative KDF ........................................................................ 38

4.1.3 Using IKEv2-SCSI to create an SA ................................................................................................. 38

4.1.3.1 Overview....................................................................................................................................... 38

4.1.3.2 IKEv2-SCSI Protocol summary .................................................................................................... 42

4.1.3.3 IKEv2-SCSI Authentication........................................................................................................... 44

4.1.3.3.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 44

4.1.3.3.2 Pre-shared key authentication................................................................................................... 45

4.1.3.3.3 Digital signature authentication ................................................................................................. 46

4.1.3.3.3.1 Overview................................................................................................................................. 46

4.1.3.3.3.2 Certificates and digital signature authentication ..................................................................... 46

4.1.3.3.3.3 Example of certificate use for digital signature authentication................................................ 47

4.1.3.3.3.4 Handling of the Certificate Request payload and the Certificate payload .............................. 47

4.1.3.3.4 Constraints on skipping the Authentication step........................................................................ 47

4.1.3.4 Summary of IKEv2-SCSI shared keys nomenclature and shared key sizes ................................ 49

4.1.3.5 Device Server Capabilities step.................................................................................................... 50

4.1.3.6 IKEv2-SCSI Key Exchange step .................................................................................................. 52

4.1.3.6.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 52

4.1.3.6.2 Key Exchange step SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command.................................................. 52

4.1.3.6.3 Key Exchange step SECURITY PROTOCOL IN command...................................................... 53

4.1.3.6.4 Key Exchange step completion ................................................................................................. 54

4.1.3.6.5 After the Key Exchange step ..................................................................................................... 54

4.1.3.7 IKEv2-SCSI Authentication step................................................................................................... 54

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ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 - 3 -

4.1.3.7.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 54

4.1.3.7.2 Authentication step SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT command .................................................. 55

4.1.3.7.3 Authentication step SECURITY PROTOCOL IN command ...................................................... 56

4.1.3.8 Generating shared keys ............................................................................................................... 57

4.1.3.8.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 57

4.1.3.8.2 Generating shared keys when the Authentication step is skipped ............................................ 58

4.1.3.8.3 Generating shared keys when the Authentication step is processed ........................................ 58

4.1.3.8.4 Initializing shared key generation .............................................................................................. 58

4.1.3.8.4.1 Initializing for SA creation shared key generation .................................................................. 58

4.1.3.8.4.2 Initializing for generation of shared keys used by the created SA.......................................... 59

4.1.3.8.5 Generating shared keys used for SA management................................................................... 59

4.1.3.8.6 Generating shared keys for use by the created SA................................................................... 60

4.1.3.9 IKEv2-SCSI SA generation........................................................................................................... 61

4.1.3.10 Abandoning an IKEv2-SCSI CCS............................................................................................... 62

4.1.3.11 Deleting an IKEv2-SCSI SA ....................................................................................................... 63

4.1.4 Security progress indication ............................................................................................................ 63

4.1.5 ESP-SCSI encapsulations for parameter data ................................................................................ 64

4.1.5.1 Overview....................................................................................................................................... 64

4.1.5.2 ESP-SCSI required inputs ............................................................................................................ 64

4.1.5.3 ESP-SCSI data format before encryption and after decryption .................................................... 65

4.1.5.4 ESP-SCSI outbound data descriptors .......................................................................................... 66

4.1.5.4.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 66

4.1.5.4.2 ESP-SCSI CDBs or Data-Out Buffer parameter lists including a descriptor length................... 67

4.1.5.4.2.1 Initialization vector absent ...................................................................................................... 67

4.1.5.4.2.2 Initialization vector present ..................................................................................................... 68

4.1.5.4.3 ESP-SCSI Data-Out Buffer parameter lists for externally specified descriptor length............... 70

4.1.5.4.3.1 Initialization vector absent ...................................................................................................... 70

4.1.5.4.3.2 Initialization vector present ..................................................................................................... 71

4.1.5.5 ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data descriptors ................................................................. 71

4.1.5.5.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................... 71

4.1.5.5.2 ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data including a descriptor length ................................... 72

4.1.5.5.2.1 Initialization vector absent ...................................................................................................... 72

4.1.5.5.2.2 Initialization vector present ..................................................................................................... 74

4.1.5.5.3 ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data for externally specified descriptor length................. 75

4.1.5.5.3.1 Initialization vector absent ...................................................................................................... 75

4.1.5.5.3.2 Initialization vector present ..................................................................................................... 76

4.1.6 Security algorithm codes ................................................................................................................. 77

4.2 Secure random numbers .................................................................................................................... 79

5 Security protocol parameters for all device types ........................................................................................ 80

5.1 Security protocol information description............................................................................................ 80

5.1.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................... 80

5.1.2 CDB description............................................................................................................................... 80

5.1.3 Supported security protocols list description ................................................................................... 81

5.1.4 Certificate data description .............................................................................................................. 82

5.1.4.1 Certificate overview ...................................................................................................................... 82

5.1.4.2 Public Key certificate description.................................................................................................. 82

5.1.4.3 Attribute certificate description ..................................................................................................... 82

5.1.5 Security compliance information description ................................................................................... 83

5.1.5.1 Security compliance information overview ................................................................................... 83

5.1.5.2 Compliance descriptor overview................................................................................................... 84

5.1.5.3 FIPS 140 compliance descriptor................................................................................................... 85

5.2 SA creation capabilities ...................................................................................................................... 86

5.2.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................... 86

5.2.2 SA creation capabilities CDB description ........................................................................................ 86

5.2.3 SA creation capabilities parameter data formats............................................................................. 87

5.2.3.1 Supported device server capabilities formats parameter data format .......................................... 87

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ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 - 4 -

5.2.3.2 IKEv2-SCSI device server capabilities parameter data format..................................................... 88

5.3 IKEv2-SCSI ........................................................................................................................................ 88

5.3.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................................... 88

5.3.2 IKEv2-SCSI SECURITY PROTOCOL IN CDB description ............................................................. 89

5.3.3 IKEv2-SCSI SECURITY PROTOCOL OUT CDB description ......................................................... 90

5.3.4 IKEv2-SCSI parameter data format................................................................................................. 91

5.3.5 IKEv2-SCSI payloads ...................................................................................................................... 98

5.3.5.1 IKEv2-SCSI payload format.......................................................................................................... 98

5.3.5.2 No Next payload ........................................................................................................................... 99

5.3.5.3 Key Exchange payload............................................................................................................... 100

5.3.5.4 Identification – Application Client payload and Identification – Device Server payload.............. 101

5.3.5.5 Certificate payload...................................................................................................................... 102

5.3.5.6 Certificate Request payload ....................................................................................................... 103

5.3.5.7 Authentication payload ............................................................................................................... 104

5.3.5.8 Nonce payload............................................................................................................................ 106

5.3.5.9 Notify payload............................................................................................................................. 107

5.3.5.10 Delete payload.......................................................................................................................... 108

5.3.5.11 Encrypted payload.................................................................................................................... 109

5.3.5.11.1 Combined mode encryption................................................................................................... 109

5.3.5.11.2 Encrypted payload introduction ............................................................................................. 110

5.3.5.11.3 IKEv2-SCSI AAD ................................................................................................................... 112

5.3.5.11.4 Processing a received Encrypted payload ............................................................................ 113

5.3.5.12 IKEv2-SCSI SA Creation Capabilities payload......................................................................... 115

5.3.5.13 IKEv2-SCSI SA Cryptographic Algorithms payload.................................................................. 116

5.3.5.14 IKEv2-SCSI SAUT Cryptographic Algorithms payload............................................................. 118

5.3.5.15 IKEv2-SCSI Timeout Values payload....................................................................................... 119

5.3.6 IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptors .......................................................................... 120

5.3.6.1 Overview..................................................................................................................................... 120

5.3.6.2 ENCR IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptor .............................................................. 122

5.3.6.3 PRF IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptor ................................................................. 124

5.3.6.4 INTEG IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptor ............................................................. 126

5.3.6.5 D-H IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptor.................................................................. 127

5.3.6.6 IKEv2-SCSI authentication algorithm IKEv2-SCSI cryptographic algorithm descriptor.............. 129

5.3.7 Errors in IKEv2-SCSI security protocol commands ....................................................................... 131

5.3.8 Errors in IKEv2-SCSI security protocol parameter data ................................................................ 133

5.3.8.1 Overview..................................................................................................................................... 133

5.3.8.2 Errors with high denial of service attack potential ...................................................................... 133

5.3.8.3 Errors with low denial of service attack potential........................................................................ 134

5.3.9 Translating IKEv2 errors................................................................................................................ 134

Annex A (informative) Security goals and threat model................................................................................ 136

A.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 136

A.2 Security goals................................................................................................................................... 136

A.3 Threat model .................................................................................................................................... 137

A.4 Types of attacks ............................................................................................................................... 137

A.5 SCSI security considerations ........................................................................................................... 138

Annex B (informative) Variations between this document and equivalent security protocols ...................... 139

B.1 IKEv2 protocol details and variations for IKEv2-SCSI...................................................................... 139

B.2 ESP protocol details and variations for ESP-SCSI .......................................................................... 142

BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................................... 143

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ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 - 5 -
Figures
Page

Figure 1 — SCSI document structure ............................................................................................................. 11

Figure 2 — SA relationships ........................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 3 — IKEv2-SCSI Device Server Capabilities step ............................................................................... 42

Figure 4 — IKEv2-SCSI Key Exchange step .................................................................................................. 42

Figure 5 — IKEv2-SCSI Authentication step................................................................................................... 43

Figure 6 — IKEv2-SCSI Delete operation....................................................................................................... 44

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ISO/IEC 14776-481:2019 © ISO/IEC 2019 - 6 -
Tables
Page

Table 1 — Numbering conventions examples ................................................................................................ 28

Table 2 — Comparison of decimal prefixes and binary prefixes..................................................................... 29

Table 3 — Minimum SA parameters............................................................................................................... 32

Table 4 — USAGE_TYPE SA parameter ....................................................................................................... 34

Table 5 — Security protocols that create SAs ................................................................................................ 35

Table 6 — KDFs summary.............................................................................................................................. 36

Table 7 — HMAC-based KDFs....................................................................................................................... 37

Table 8 — Hash functions used by HMAC based on KDF_ID........................................................................ 37

Table 9 — RFC 3566 parameter translations for the KDF based on AES-XCBC-PRF-128 ........................... 38

Table 10 — IKEv2-SCSI shared key names and SA shared key names........................................................ 49

Table 11 — Shared key size determination .................................................................................................... 50

Table 12 — Device Server Capabilities step parameter data requirements ................................................... 51

Table 13 — IKEv2-SCSI command terminations that do not abandon the CCS ............................................ 62

Table 14 — ESP-SCSI data format before encryption and after decryption................................................... 65

Table 15 — ESP-SCSI outbound data descriptors ......................................................................................... 66

Table 16 — ESP-SCSI CDBs or Data-Out Buffer parameter list descriptor without initialization vector......... 67

Table 17 — ESP-SCSI CDBs or Data-Out Buffer full parameter list descriptor.............................................. 69

Table 18 — ESP-SCSI Data-Out Buffer parameter list descriptor without length and initialization vector ..... 70

Table 19 — ESP-SCSI Data-Out Buffer parameter list descriptor without length........................................... 71

Table 20 — ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data descriptors ................................................................ 72

Table 21 — ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data descriptor without initialization vector ....................... 72

Table 22 — ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer full parameter data descriptor............................................................. 74

Table 23 — ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data descriptor without length and initialization vector...... 75

Table 24 — ESP-SCSI Data-In Buffer parameter data descriptor without length........................................... 76

Table 25 — Security algorithm codes ............................................................................................................. 77

Table 26 — SECURITY PROTOCOL SPECIFIC field for SECURITY PROTOCOL IN protocol 00h........................ 80

Table 27 — Supported security protocols SECURITY PROTOCOL IN parameter data
...

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