General method for assessing the proportion of recycled material content in energy related products

This European Standard (EN) provides a general methodology for assessing the proportion of recycled material in energy related products.

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Materials von energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Dieses Dokument bietet ein allgemeines Verfahren für die Bewertung des Anteils von sekundärem Material in einem energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkt, seinen Teilen oder seinem/seinen Material(ien).
Dieses Dokument kann als Rahmenwerk verwendet werden, um die Bewertung des Rezyklatanteils in spezifischen Produktgruppen zu definieren; sind keine produktspezifischen Normen vorhanden, kann es direkt angewandt werden.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für die Bewertung wiederverwendeter Komponenten.
ANMERKUNG Wiederverwendete Komponenten werden in prEN 45556:2018 behandelt

Méthode générale pour l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés des produits liés à l’énergie

Le présent document fournit une méthode générale pour l’évaluation de la proportion de matière secondaire dans un produit lié à l’énergie, ses pièces ou matériau(x).
Le présent document est applicable en tant que cadre à utiliser pour définir l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés dans des groupes spécifiques de produits ; toutefois, en l’absence de normes spécifiques aux produits, il peut être appliqué directement.
Le présent document ne s’applique pas à l’évaluation des composants réutilisés.
NOTE Les composants réutilisés sont traités dans le prEN 45556:2018.

Splošna metoda za ocenjevanje deleža recikliranega materiala v proizvodih, povezanih z energijo

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2019
Publication Date
14-May-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-May-2020
Due Date
17-Jul-2020
Completion Date
15-May-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 45557:2020
01-julij-2020
Splošna metoda za ocenjevanje deleža recikliranega materiala v proizvodih,
povezanih z energijo

General method for assessing the proportion of recycled material content in energy

related products
Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Materials von
energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Méthode générale pour l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés des produits liés à

l’énergie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 45557:2020
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
SIST EN 45557:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 45557:2020
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 45557
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2020
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General method for assessing the proportion of recycled
material content in energy-related products

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation du contenu en Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an

matériaux recyclés des produits liés à l'énergie recyceltem Material von energieverbrauchsrelevanten

Produkten
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 February 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 45557:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.1.1 Definitions related to materials ................................................................................................................ 5

3.1.2 Other definitions ............................................................................................................................................. 6

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4 General assessment procedure.................................................................................................................. 7

5 Description of material composition of ErPs ........................................................................................ 7

5.1 Scope of the assessment ............................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials ............................................................ 8

5.3 Distinction between pre-consumer material and post-consumer material .............................. 8

5.3.1 General................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.3.2 Pre-consumer material ................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 Post-consumer material ............................................................................................................................. 10

6 Traceability ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

7 Calculation of recycled materials content ........................................................................................... 12

7.1 General considerations ............................................................................................................................... 12

7.2 Verification and mass balance process for parts or ErPs ............................................................... 12

7.3 General method for recycled materials content calculation for parts or ErPs ....................... 14

8 Reporting recycled materials content aspects ................................................................................... 15

8.1 General.............................................................................................................................................................. 15

8.2 Elements of the assessment report ........................................................................................................ 15

Annex A (normative) Additional guidance for materials ............................................................................ 16

Annex B (informative) Example for the calculation of recycled materials content in an ErP ........ 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 24

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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 45557:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 10 “Energy-

related products – Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 to 45559,

have been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are

intended to potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Directive 2009/125/EC concerning

energy-related products (ErP).

Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

aspects:
a) Extending product lifetime;

b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life;

c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products.

These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product-specific, or

product-group, standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees.

This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, and

product, or product-group, standards.

NOTE CEN/CENELEC/JTC 10 is a joint TC, and uses either CEN or CENELEC foreword templates, as

appropriate. The template for the current document is correct at the time of publication.

Attention is drawn to safety and other legislation relevant to ErP. Their purpose is to ensure that all

products intended for or likely to be used by consumers and other users under normal or reasonable

foreseeable conditions are safe.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Introduction

The recycled material content of a new product is a characteristic of the product and its parts, which

contributes to material efficiency, in addition to the potentials of reusability, recyclability and

recoverability.

With a focus on the efficient and effective use of natural resources, primary materials are often able to

be substituted by recycled materials, reducing the demand for primary materials, with related potential

environmental, social and economic implications. These could include reduced mining and consumption

of natural resources, reduced landfill, reduced emissions and energy savings. The overall environmental

impact will depend on the difference in the impacts of making materials from primary sources (oil, ore,

etc.) vs. reprocessing waste into secondary materials which would directly substitute primary

materials.

The benefit of increasing recycled materials content in products is, in many cases, the incentivisation of

recycling of end-of-life (EoL) waste material through the stimulation of demand for recycled materials.

In other cases, where there is already high demand for recycled materials compared to the available

supply, the link between specification of higher recycled materials content and the incentivisation of

recycling is weaker. In that case, specification of recycled materials content may not be relevant to eco-

design. The rationale for specifying recycled materials content, therefore needs to be considered for

each material individually depending on the specific supply/demand situation.

This document facilitates the provision of substantiated claims of the recycled materials content of

energy-related products (ErPs). Key for substantiated claims for new products is the recognition of the

chain of custody (CoC), which allows the tracing of recycled materials from different sources.

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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies a general method for assessing the proportion of recycled material in an

energy-related product. This document is applicable as the framework to be used for defining the

assessment of recycled materials content in specific product groups.

It is not intended to generate publicly available product information and compare products in the

absence of a product standard based on this document.

This document does not cover aspects such as quality and physical properties of recycled materials.

This document does not apply to the assessment of reused components.

NOTE EN 45556:2019 provides a general method for assessing the proportion of reused components in ErPs.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45559, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-related

products
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

NOTE See CLC/TR 45550:- for additional definitions related to material efficiency of ErP.

3.1.1 Definitions related to materials
3.1.1.1
primary material
material made from virgin raw material(s)
3.1.1.2
recycled material
material which is either pre-consumer material or post-consumer material

Note 1 to entry: The terms “recycled material” and “secondary material” have the same meaning in this

document.
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: CLC/prTR 45550:201X.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
3.1.1.3
pre-consumer material

material diverted from the waste generated during a manufacturing process excluding reutilization of

materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and being reincorporated in the same

process that generated it

Note 1 to entry: Same process means the same manufacturing operation for the same type of product in the

same or different physical location.

[SOURCE: ISO 14021:2016, 7.8.1.1, modified by replacement of “stream” by “generated”, addition of

Note 1 to entry and amended according to drafting rules of CEN/CLC Internal Regulations Part 3]

3.1.1.4
post-consumer material

material recovered from waste generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional

facilities in their role as end-users of a finished product

Note 1 to entry: This includes returns of products, or parts thereof, from the distribution of finished products for

end-users.
3.1.2 Other definitions
3.1.2.1
chain of custody

chain of responsibilities for, or control of, products or materials as they move through each step in the

relevant supply chain
3.1.2.2
part
hardware, firmware or software constituent of a product

Note 1 to entry: Firmware and software are not relevant for the purpose of this document.

[SOURCE: EN 45554:2020 definition 3.2]
3.1.2.3
waste

substance or object of any kind, which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
3.2 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations have been used in this document:
CoC chain of custody
EoL end-of-life
ErP energy-related product
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
4 General assessment procedure

Primary materials and recycled materials are often physically or chemically indistinguishable, and there

are currently no reliable, accurate and reproducible methods available for directly measuring the

recycled materials content in a product. For the purpose of this document, the verification of recycled

materials content therefore relies on documented proof for traceability (see Clause 6) provided by the

relevant operator in the CoC. Recycled materials content is expressed as the average ratio of recycled

materials used to the total production output of energy-related products over a specific period of time.

The assessment of recycled materials content requires:
1) description of the scope of the assessment (see 5.1);
2) description of materials composition of a single product (see 5.2 and 5.3);

3) a management system to trace the type of material inputs, for both primary and recycled materials

(see Clause 6);

4) performance of a mass balance calculation, linking recycled materials content of parts/products to

total materials in parts/products produced (see Clause 7).

While Clause 7 elaborates on how to determine the recycled materials content of an ErP or its parts,

Annex A elaborates on how to determine the recycled materials content of a material, as manufacturers

can sometimes be ErP manufacturers, part manufacturers and/or material manufacturers. It is advised

to refer to the respective part of this document.
In Annex A material manufacturers are the main audience addressed.
5 Description of material composition of ErPs
5.1 Scope of the assessment

The users of this document shall define the scope of the assessment and select its appropriate elements

as detailed below. The assessment shall be applied either to
— the ErP, or
— parts of the ErP.

It is possible to perform the assessment of the ErP or parts at different levels for

— all materials, or

— a type of material, e.g. plastic, metal, glass (more details provided in 5.2), or

— individual material, e.g. polypropylene, aluminium, float glass (more details provided in 5.2).

The elements of the scope that are applicable shall be determined by the users of this document and

shall be documented (see 8.2).

The scope of the assessment shall define whether the recycled materials content assessment is done on

the pre-consumer material or the post-consumer material or both.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials

The material declaration is a way to express the composition of the materials contained in a product or

part. To establish a material declaration, each part of the product shall be assessed for the mass of its

constituent materials, according to the scope of assessment (see 5.1). The masses of the respective

material fractions shall be summed up to obtain the material composition of the whole part/product.

In many cases a given material type can represent different grades of the same material that are not

identical but very similar and thus share the majority of physical and chemical properties.

EXAMPLE Steel or polypropylene (PP) are produced in different grades for specific applications. The Society

of Automotive Engineers lists among others different grades of nickel-chromium steels with varying proportion of

nickel and chromium, e.g. 31xx, 32xx, 33xx, 34xx. For polypropylene, the three main grades are homopolymer PP,

random copolymer PP, block copolymer PP.

Various grades of a material type shall be treated as one material to determine the proportion of

recycled materials content of a product. Alloys may require the allocation to a certain material. The

users of this document shall define the applicable material clusters for their respective product group.

It may be necessary to exclude parts from allocation to specific material clusters due to their small size,

complexity of their material composition or for other reasons, e.g. administrative or legal. To keep the

mass balance even, these unspecified parts/materials shall be classified as “other materials” and be

accounted for in the total mass of the product. These “other materials” shall be treated as primary

material. The users of this document may determine limits for materials classified as “other materials” if

applicable.
5.3 Distinction between pre-consumer material and post-consumer material
5.3.1 General

Only pre-consumer materials and post-consumer materials shall count towards recycled materials

content, in accordance with the definition provided in Clause 3, and in line with specific guidelines

provided in Annex A for different material types.

Recycled material content is typically brought into a production process to substitute some primary

material. The recycled material can be pre-consumer or post-consumer material. The point of

substitution is reached when the different properties of the input materials combine into an output

comprised of homogenous material of defined properties.
5.3.2 Pre-consumer material

A material, which is reclaimed and reutilized within the same process that generated it shall not count

towards pre-consumer material. A material which is not reclaimed and reutilized within the same

process that generated it, and which undergoes material preparation, shall count towards pre-

consumer material. This general concept is visualized in Figure 1.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Key
Potential mix of material
Pre-consumer material
Figure 1 — Concept of pre-consumer material
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)

A material, which is recovered within the same process that generated it, as shown in Figure 1, shall not

count as pre-consumer material for recycled materials content. For detailed information on specific

types of materials see Annex A.

EXAMPLE For most materials the recycled material content is fixed in a process where the material is

transformed from a liquid to a solid state. In the case of steel making, the recycled material content is fixed after

melting and casting into a solid slab, bloom, billet or ingot. Scrap originating from the meltshop, such as solidified

steel from steelmaking vessels (skulls) or rejected castings, would be excluded from the calculation of pre-

consumer material, because they can be reclaimed within the same melting process that generated them. This is

regardless of the fact that the scrap may need to be further prepared in order to make it suitable for use in a

production process, such as cutting to size. In the case of plastic injection moulding, rejects from this process

which are reclaimed and reutilized within the same process would not be considered pre-consumer material.

It is also important to describe where process A ends. Being part of the same process A can include

continuous processes (i.e. material or product cannot be diverted to different processing steps until the

end of that process step). At the end of the process A, the output can no longer change its inherent

recycled materials content (i.e. it is frozen/fixed). Material recovered from further processing after

process A could be included as pre-consumer material, because it has to go back to process A.

5.3.3 Post-consumer material

Once products have reached the end of their life, materials obtained from collected waste and treated

waste shall be considered post-consumer materials (see Figure 2). Products may reach the end of their

life shortly after being traded commercially or having left the final manufacturing facility. This might

happen when products are damaged or cannot be sold from their distribution chain (e.g. a new version

of a product replaces the previous one which cannot be sold anymore). Materials can only be

considered post-consumer after they have become part of a finished product for the end-user and are

subsequently discarded.

NOTE In this document, the term “finished product for the end-user” is used to describe a fully assembled

product. The notion of a finished product is used to distinguish product manufacturers from material/part

manufacturers.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)
Key
Potential mix of materials
Post-consumer material
Figure 2 — Concept of post-consumer material
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)

EXAMPLE Float glass used in the manufacture of a window is considered as post-consumer material if it has

been assembled in an insulation glass unit that had been scrapped. Prior to this moment, it will be considered as

pre-consumer material.
6 Traceability

A traceability system able to track recycled materials from the moment they are identified as recycled

materials to their final application shall be implemented. As a minimum, traceability information for the

recycled materials is needed to calculate the recycled materials content.

Primary and recycled materials are often physically or chemically indistinguishable, and there are

currently no reliable, accurate and reproducible methods available for directly measuring the recycled

materials content in a product. Therefore, the verification of recycled materials content is based

exclusively on documentation.

For the purposes of the assessment, information allowing traceability (CoC) of the recycled materials

content in an ErP shall be gathered, see Annex A.2. The type (pre- or post-consumer) and the quantity of

recycled material shall be documented.

The required level of detail will depend upon the type of material (e.g. glass, plastics, metal, etc.), see

Annex A.5. The type of data and level of detail for this information shall be defined by users of this

document.
7 Calculation of recycled materials content
7.1 General considerations

The ErP manufacturer shall verify and calculate the mass balance as described in 7.2. The calculation

will be limited to the scope of the assessment, see 5.1.

The ErP manufacturer shall collect information, based on the calculations described in Annex A on the

recycled materials content of the supplied materials.

For ErP manufacturers who are also material manufacturers, calculation of the recycled materials

content of materials shall be carried out according to Annex A.
7.2 Verification and mass balance process for parts or ErPs

Calculation and verification of the recycled materials content in parts (according to the scope of the

assessment) or an ErP consists of balancing the mass of production output over a certain period of time

(the accounting period), with the material inputs, corrected for changes in material stock and

conversions during processes:
Output = Input − Change in stock − Internal conversions − Waste (1)
where
Output is the mass of material in parts or the ErP in the accounting period;
Input is the mass of materials/parts coming to the production in the accounting
period;

Change in stock is the change in stock of material in materials/parts in the accounting period;

Internal are the losses in material flows due to production technology (e.g.:
conversions polycondensation) in the accounting period;

Waste is the mass of wasted materials/parts from the production in the accounting

period.
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SIST EN 45557:2020
EN 45557:2020 (E)

Where a process has more than one input, the inputs are allocated to the output based on the average

composition of the inputs over the accounting period (see examples 1 and 2).

EXAMPLE 1 When manufacturing parts made with equal mass of recycled and primary material as inputs

during the accounting period, the output will have 50 % recycled materials content.

EXAMPLE 2 When manufacturing parts made with equal mass of only recycled material on day one and only

primary material on day two as inputs, the output over the two-day accounting period will have 50 % recycled

materials content.

The inputs shall be defined according to the scope of the assessment, see 5.1. Inputs may be a part or a

material e.g. reagent or monomer or constituent.
The input shall be calculated by:
a) identifying the types of materials,
b) quantifying the material composition in terms of mass and

c) summing up the total mass of materials per type of material over the accounting period.

The output is a part or an ErP.
The output shall be calculated by:
1) quantifying the mass of the part or ErP being assessed,

2) establishing the production quantity of the part or ErP being assessed over the accounting period

and

3) summing up total mass of materials being assessed per type for production output over the

accounting period.

Change in stock shall be accounted for by calculating changes in material/part stock between the start

and the end of the accounting period.

Internal conversion accounts for any losses that can be used as materials for application outside the

production system under investigation or losses from chemical reactions, e.g. polycondensation.

An example of a mass-balance calculation is presented in Annex B.

The accounting period will depend on several factors, including the production setup:

• If the production is set up on the basis of mass production the accounting period shall be defined by

the users of this document and not exceed one year. The mass production can cover several

production lines, sites and even product families, provided that they are representative of the parts

or ErP as defined in the scope of the assessment.

• If the production is set up on the basis of made to order or batch production t

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 45557:2019
01-januar-2019
Splošna metoda za ocenjevanje deleža recikliranega materiala v proizvodih,
povezanih z energijo

General method for assessing the proportion of recycled material content in energy

related products
Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an recyceltem Materials von
energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Méthode générale pour l’évaluation du contenu en matériaux recyclés des produits liés à

l’énergie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 45557
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
oSIST prEN 45557:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 45557:2019
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oSIST prEN 45557:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 45557
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2018
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General method for assessing the proportion of recycled
material content in energy related products

Méthode générale pour l'évaluation du contenu en Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung des Anteils an

matériaux recyclés des produits liés à l'énergie recyceltem Materials von energieverbrauchsrelevanter

Produkte

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 10.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
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oSIST prEN 45557:2019
prEN 45557:2018 (E)
1 Contents Page

2 European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

3 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4 1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

6 3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 5

7 4 General assessment procedure........................................................................................................ 6

8 5 Assessment of materials composition ........................................................................................... 7

9 5.1 Scope of the assessment ..................................................................................................................... 7

10 5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials .................................................. 7

11 5.3 Pre-consumer material and post-consumer material distinction ...................................... 8

12 6 Traceability ........................................................................................................................................... 10

13 6.1 General considerations ..................................................................................................................... 10

14 6.2 Material provisions ............................................................................................................................ 11

15 6.3 Chain of custody .................................................................................................................................. 11

16 7 Calculation of recycled material content ................................................................................... 12

17 7.1 General considerations ..................................................................................................................... 12

18 7.2 Verification and mass balance process ....................................................................................... 12

19 7.3 General method for recycled material content calculation ................................................. 14

20 8 Reporting recycled material content aspects ........................................................................... 15

21 8.1 General.................................................................................................................................................... 15

22 8.2 Elements of the assessment report .............................................................................................. 15

23 Annex A (normative) Additional guidance on specific materials ................................................... 17

24 A.1 Plastics .................................................................................................................................................... 17

25 A.2 Metals ...................................................................................................................................................... 18

26 A.3 Glass ......................................................................................................................................................... 18

27 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

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29 European foreword

30 This document (prEN 45557:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CENELEC/JTC 10

31 “Energy-related products - Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held by

32 NEN.
33 This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

34 This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

35 Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

36 The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 – 45559, have

37 been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are intended to

38 potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Directive 2009/125/EC concerning Energy-

39 related Products (ErP).

40 Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

41 aspects:
42 a) Extending product lifetime

43 b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life

44 c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products

45 These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

46 terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product, or product-group,

47 standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees.

48 This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, and

49 product, or product-group, standards.”

50 Note CEN/CENELEC/JTC 10 is a dual logo TC, and uses either CEN or CENELEC foreword templates, as

51 appropriate. The template for the current document is correct at the time of publication..

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52 Introduction

53 Beyond the potentials of reusability, recyclability and recoverability, recycled material content of new

54 products is a physical characteristic of a product and its parts and also contributes to material efficiency.

55 For the purpose of an efficient and effective use of natural resources, secondary materials are often able

56 to substitute primary materials, reducing the demand for primary materials, which bring potential

57 environmental, social and economic benefits. Environmental benefits include reduced mining and

58 consumption of natural resources, reduced landfill and emissions as well as energy savings. The overall

59 environmental benefit will depend on the difference in environmental impact of making material from

60 primary sources (oil, ore etc.) vs. processing waste into a secondary material which would directly

61 substitute primary material. The benefit of increasing recycled material content in products incentivises,

62 in many cases, recycling of end-of-life (EoL) waste material by stimulating demand for secondary

63 materials. In other cases, where there is already sufficient demand for secondary materials to use what

64 is already supplied by the market, specification of higher recycled material content will not necessarily

65 incentivise recycling of additional EoL waste material, and so is therefore not always relevant to eco-

66 design e.g. if supply is limited. The rationale for specifying recycled material content, therefore needs to

67 be considered for each material individually depending on the overall market demand/supply situation

68 for each material.

69 This document helps to give substantiated claims of the recycled content in energy-related products

70 (ErPs). Key for substantiated claims for new products is the recognition of the chain of custody, which

71 allows tracing secondary materials from different sources.
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72 1 Scope

73 This document provides a general method for assessing the proportion of secondary material in an

74 energy-related product, its parts or material(s).

75 This document is applicable as the framework to be used for defining the assessment of recycled material

76 content in specific product groups; however in absence of product specific standards it can be applied

77 directly.
78 This document does not apply to the assessment of reused components.
79 NOTE Reused components are addressed in prEN 45556:2018.
80 2 Normative references

81 The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

82 constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

83 undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

84 prEN 45559:2018, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-

85 related products
86 3 Terms and definitions
87 For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

88 ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

89 • IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
90 • ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
91 3.1
92 chain of custody

93 sequence of responsibilities for, or control of products or materials as they move through each step in the

94 relevant supply chain

95 [SOURCE: ISO 13065:2015, modified, “chain” replaced by “sequence”, “products or” added and “of the

96 process or product system under assessment” replaced with “in the relevant supply chain”]

97 3.2
98 pre-consumer material

99 material diverted from the waste generated during a manufacturing process excluding reutilization of

100 materials such as rework, regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within

101 the same process that generated it

102 [SOURCE: ISO 14021:2016, 7.8.1.1, modified “stream” replaced by “generated” and drafting rules of

103 CEN/CLC Internal Regulations Part 3 applied]
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104 3.3
105 post-consumer material

106 material recovered from waste generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional

107 facilities in their role as end-users of the product which can no longer be used for its intended purpose

108 Note 1 to entry: This includes returns of energy-related products, and materials therein, from the distribution of

109 finished products.

110 [SOURCE: ISO 14021:2016, 7.8.1.1, modified “generated” replaced by “recovered from waste generated”,

111 “this includes returns of material from the distribution chain” replaced by “This includes returns of

112 energy-related products, and materials therein, from the distribution of finished products” and moved to

113 Note 1 to entry and drafting rules of CEN/CLC Internal Regulations Part 3 applied]

114 3.4
115 recycled material content
116 proportion, by mass, of secondary material in a product
117 3.5
118 primary material

119 material made from virgin raw material sources extracted from a renewable or non-renewable resource

120 3.6
121 secondary material
122 material recovered from pre-consumer or post-consumer material
123 3.7
124 part
125 hardware, firmware or software constituent of a product
126 [SOURCE: prEN 45554:2018]
127 3.8
128 waste

129 substance or object of any kind, which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

130 [SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
131 4 General assessment procedure

132 Primary and secondary material is often physically or chemically indistinguishable and there are

133 currently no analytical methods available for directly measuring the recycled material content in a

134 product. For the purpose of this document, the verification of recycled content therefore relies on

135 documental proof (see Clause 6) provided by the relevant operator in the chain of custody. Recycled

136 content is expressed as the average ratio of secondary material used in the total production output over

137 a specified time. Those materials constitute the inputs to a product manufacturer, which are transformed

138 into parts of an energy-related product.
139 The assessment of recycled material content requires:
140 1) Definition of the scope of the assessment (see Clause 5.1);

141 2) Assessment of materials composition of a single product (see Clause 5.2 and 5.3);

142 3) An open, easy to follow management system to trace the type of material inputs, both primary and

143 secondary materials (see Clause 6);
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144 4) Performing a mass balance calculation, linking secondary materials of a part/product to total

145 material quantity in a part/product (see Clause 7).
146 5 Assessment of materials composition
147 5.1 Scope of the assessment

148 The user of this document shall define the scope of the assessment and select its appropriate elements

149 detailed below. The assessment shall be applied either on:
150 • the whole ErP (e.g. vacuum cleaner), or

151 • a specified unit of the ErP (e.g. electrical motor of a vacuum cleaner), or

152 • an intermediate product in the value chain that leads to a unit of the ErP or the product (e.g. copper

153 winding of the stator in an electrical motor of a vacuum cleaner).

154 It is possible to perform the assessment at pre-consumer and/or post-consumer recycled content and at

155 different levels:
156 • parts included in the product, e.g. motor, housing etc., or

157 • type of material in the product or in parts of the product, e.g. the fractions of plastic, metal, glass etc.

158 (more details provided in Clause 5.2), or

159 • a subgroup of the type of material, e.g. polypropylene, aluminium, float glass etc. (more details

160 provided in Clause 5.2).

161 The scope description shall contain the position in the supply chain of the company executing the

162 assessment:
163 • material supplier, and/or
164 • part supplier, and/or
165 • ErP manufacturer.

166 Which of the elements of the scope are best applicable shall be determined by the user of this document

167 and shall be reported in the final project report (see Clause 8.2).
168 5.2 Material declaration clustering and unspecified materials

169 The material declaration is a way to express the composition of the materials contained in a product or

170 any part of it. To establish a material declaration, each part of the product shall be assessed for the weight

171 of its constituent materials, according to the scope of assessment (see Clause 5.1). The masses of the

172 respective material fractions of all parts shall be summed up to obtain the material composition of the

173 whole product.

174 In many cases a given material type represents different grades of the same material that are not identical

175 but very similar and thus share the majority of physical and chemical properties.

176 EXAMPLE Steel or polypropylene (PP) are produced in different grades for specific applications. The Society

177 of Automotive Engineers lists among others different grades of Nickel-chromium steels with varying proportion of

178 Nickel and chromium, e.g. 31xx, 32xx, 33xx, 34xx. For Polypropylene, the three main grades are homopolymer PP,

179 random copolymer PP, block copolymer PP.
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180 Various grades of a material type shall be treated as one material to determine the proportion of recycled

181 material content of a product. Alloys may require the allocation to a certain material. Users of this

182 document shall define the applicable material clusters for their respective product group.

183 It may be necessary to exclude parts from the allocation to specific material clusters due to their small

184 size, their complexity of material composition or other, e.g. administrative or legal reasons. To keep the

185 mass balance even, these unspecified parts/materials shall be classified as “other materials” and be

186 accounted for in the total mass of the product. These “other materials” shall be treated as primary

187 material. Users of this document may determine limits for materials classified as “other materials” if

188 applicable.
189 5.3 Pre-consumer material and post-consumer material distinction

190 Only pre-consumer materials and post-consumer materials shall count towards recycled material

191 content, in accordance with their definition provided in Clause 3, as well as with specific guidelines

192 provided in Annex A for different material types. Material, which is reclaimed or capable of being

193 reclaimed within the same manufacturing process that generated it, is referred to as circulating material

194 and shall not count towards recycled material content.

195 The general concept of primary material, pre-consumer material and post-consumer material is

196 visualized in Figure 1.
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197
198 Key
primary material
pre-consumer material
post consumer material
potential mix of materials

199 Figure 1 — Visualization of primary material, pre-consumer material and post-consumer material

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200 Pre-consumer material

201 Production process A – typically this is the process where primary material is substituted by pre-

202 consumer or post-consumer material and the point of substitution is reached where the different

203 properties of the input materials become part of a homogenous material output of defined properties.

204 Material, which is recovered within the same manufacturing process that generated it, is referred to as

205 circulating material and shall not count towards recycled material content (see Figure 1 B).

206 EXAMPLE 1 For most materials the recycled material content is fixed in a process where the material is

207 transformed from a liquid to a solid. This would be defined as material production process A. In the case of steel

208 making, the recycled material content is fixed after melting and casting into a solid slab/bloom/billet or ingot. Scrap

209 originating from the meltshop, such as solidified steel from steelmaking vessels (skulls) or rejected castings, would

210 be excluded from the calculation of pre-consumer material, because they can be reclaimed within the same melting

211 process that generated them. This is regardless of the fact that the scrap may need to be further processed in order

212 to make it suitable for use in process A, such as cutting to size. In the case of plastic injection moulding, rejects from

213 this process are also capable of being reclaimed and reutilized within the same process, after making processing

214 into the correct size, and so would also be excluded from the calculation.

215 It is also important to describe where process A ends. Being part of the same process A can include

216 continuous processes (i.e. material or product cannot be diverted to different processing steps until the

217 end of that process step). At the end of the process (A), the output can no longer change its inherent

218 recycled content (i.e. it is frozen / fixed). Material recovered from further processing after process A

219 (Process B) could be included as pre-consumer material, because it is not capable of being reutilized

220 within process B, and has to go back to process A (see Figure 1 B).

221 EXAMPLE 2 Process B, an assembly process of several plastic parts (injected by process A) can generates a final

222 assembly which doesn’t meet technical requirements. The parts coming from this assembly cannot be reworked in

223 process B but have to go back to Process A as a pre-consumer material. For steel, process B would be a rolling

224 process, where scrap has to be returned to the melting process prior to rolling.

225 Post-consumer material

226 Once products have reached the end of their life, they undergo a treatment process and recovered

227 materials are considered post-consumer. Products may reach the end of their life shortly after being

228 traded commercially or having left the final manufacturing facility. This might happen when products are

229 damaged or cannot be sold from their distribution chain (e.g. a new version of a product replaces the

230 previous one which cannot be sold anymore). Materials used in ErP can only be considered post-

231 consumer after they have become part of end-of-life products and are subsequently scrapped. Prior to

232 this, materials scrapped from the material distribution chain are considered pre-consumer.

233 6 Traceability
234 6.1 General considerations

235 The implementation of a traceability system means that the secondary material can be tracked from the

236 moment it is identified as secondary material to its final application. Traceability information from at

237 least the secondary materials is needed to calculate the recycled material content.

238 A technical method to measure the recycled material content in a product, which is reliable, accurate and

239 reproducible, is not available. Therefore, the verification of recycled material content is based exclusively

240 on documentation. Thus any study about a possible requirement on proportion of recycled material

241 content as market entrance criteria for ErP should take into account the maturity level of control methods

242 and the feedback of professionals, producers and recyclers.
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243 6.2 Material provisions

244 The whole secondary material supply chain including suppliers of material with recycled material

245 content shall provide information allowing traceability. The type (pre- or post-consumer) and the

246 quantity of secondary material shall be documented. Also procedures for the identification and the

247 recording of the data shall be appropriately documented and recorded. Provided information can include

248 additionally:

249 a) Identification (e.g. batch), collecting and sorting (if batch of input material is labelled and stored in

250 dedicated area);

251 b) Monitor/check of recycling process of the input material, i.e. if process variables are recorded, if

252 secondary material produced is kept in batches and details of date production is recorded, and if

253 quality management system of the secondary material delivered by the process is implemented;

254 c) Specification of material before and after processing, e.g. characterization of incoming material.

255 The information a) - c) should be available for verification. The required level of detail will depend upon

256 the type of material (e.g. glass, plastics, metal, etc.). The level of detail for this information shall be defined

257 by users of this document.
258 6.3 Chain of custody

259 The traceability of information may be achieved through the implementation of different Chain of

260 Custody (CoC) models as:
261 a) Mass Balance

262 The mass of secondary materials entering the operation in a period of time is controlled and an

263 equivalent mass of material leaving the operations may be claimed as recycled. The physical mixing

264 of recyclable and non-recyclable materials is allowed. Balance of material mass may be applied at

265 batch level or production line level. The recycled material content claim may be allocated to any

266 physical product leaving the production chain, independently from its physical composition, as long

267 as there is a corresponding quantity of secondary material originating from the same consumer of

268 that product e.g. via a take back agreement and the masses are appropriately balanced.

269 b) Physical Segregation

270 Secondary material is kept separate from non-secondary materials through each stage of the supply

271 chain allowing assurance that the parts within a particular product originate from secondary

272 materials, though it may not be possible to identify which material came from which batch of recycled

273 source.
274 c) Identity Preservation

275 Each batch of secondary material shall be uniquely traced through the production process from the

276 point of origin to the last point of transformation.

277 Considering the complexity of implementation of a traceability system, mass balance is the most feasible

278 of the above-mentioned methods. Users of this document shall establish a chain of custody based upon

279 the models introduced in a)-c), taking into account:

280 • traceability of each individual item of waste is not economically feasible. The traceability should start

281 from the treatment and recycling plants for EoL products (post-consumer material). In case of

282 industrial waste (pre-consumer material), traceability should start from collection or

283 material/product producer or converter, where the waste originates from.
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284 • each economic operator in the chain of custody is responsible for the data supplied in the product

285 declarations submitted to the next economic operator. The validity of these declarations may be

286 assessed by a third party. Alternatively, a supplier declaration may be used.

287 7 Calculation of recycled material content
288 7.1 General considerations

289 The manufacturer of the ErP shall verify and calculate the mass balance as described in Clause 7.2. The

290 calculation will be limited to the scope of the assessment, see Clause 5.1.

291 In order to do so, the supplier of materials shall give information of recycled content based in calculations

292 described in Clause 7.3. Whether the recycled content shall be divided into pre- or post-consumer

293 recycled material will depend on the scope of the assessment, see Clause 5.1.

294 7.2 Verification and mass balance process

295 Calculation and verification of the recycled material content in an ErP consists of balancing the mass of

296 production output over a certain accounting period, with the material inputs, corrected for changes in

297 material stock and conversions during processes:
298 Output = Input + Change in stock + Internal conversions – Waste
299 Where
Output is the amount of material in finished products in the accounting period;

Input is the amount of material coming to the production in the accounting period;

Change i
...

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