Plastics - Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment interface - Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide (ISO 19679:2020)

This document specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic biodegradation of
plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between seawater and the
seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide (CO2). This test method can also be applied to other
solid materials.
This test method is a simulation under laboratory conditions of the habitat found in different seawater/
sediment-areas in the sea, e.g. in a benthic zone where sunlight reaches the ocean floor (photic zone)
that, in marine science, is called sublittoral zone
The determination of biodegradation of plastic materials and other solid materials buried in marine
sediment is outside the scope of this document.
NOTE Measurement of aerobic biodegradation can also be obtained by monitoring the oxygen consumption,
as described in ISO 18830.
The conditions described in this document do not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the
maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.

Kunststoffe - Bestimmung des aeroben Bioabbaus von nicht-schwimmenden Kunststoffmaterialien in einer Meerwasser/Sediment-Schnittstelle - rüfverfahren mittels Analyse des freigesetzten Kohlenstoffdioxids (ISO 19679:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Grades und der Geschwindigkeit des aeroben Bioabbaus von Kunststoffmaterialien fest, welche sich auf dem marinen sandigen Sediment an der Grenzfläche zwischen Meereswasser und dem Meeresboden abgesetzt haben, indem das freigesetzte Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO2) gemessen wird. Dieses Prüfverfahren kann auch auf andere Feststoffe angewendet werden.
Dieses Prüfverfahren ist eine Simulation des Lebensraums unter Laborbedingungen, der in unterschied¬lichen Meereswasser-/Sedimentbereichen im Meer anzutreffen ist, so z. B. das Benthal, in dem Sonnenlicht noch bis zum Meeresgrund vordringt (euphotische Zone), die in der Meereswissenschaft als Sublitoral bezeichnet wird.
Die Bestimmung des Bioabbaus von Kunststoffmaterialien und anderen Feststoffen, die von Meeressediment begraben sind, ist nicht Gegenstand dieses Dokuments.
ANMERKUNG Die Messung des aeroben Bioabbaus kann auch durch Überwachung des Sauerstoffverbrauchs erfolgen, wie in ISO 18830 beschrieben.
Die in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Bedingungen entsprechen nicht immer den Optimalbedingungen, unter denen der höchste Grad an biologischem Abbau möglich ist.

Plastiques - Détermination de la biodégradation aérobie des matières plastiques non-flottantes dans une interface eau de mer/sédiments - Méthode par analyse du dioxyde de carbone libéré (ISO 19679:2020)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode d'essai permettant de déterminer le taux et le niveau de biodégradation aérobie des matériaux plastiques lorsqu'ils se trouvent sur des sédiments sableux marins à l'interface entre l'eau de mer et le fond océanique, en mesurant le dioxyde de carbone (CO2) libéré. Cette méthode d'essai peut également être appliquée à d'autres matériaux solides.
Cette méthode d'essai est une simulation, dans les conditions de laboratoire, de l'habitat rencontré dans différentes zones d'eau de mer/de sédiments en mer, par exemple dans une zone benthique où les rayons du soleil atteignent le fond océanique (zone photique) c'est-à-dire ce qu'on appelle, en science marine, la zone sublittorale.
La détermination de la biodégradation des matériaux plastiques et autres matériaux solides enfouis dans les sédiments marins est hors du domaine d'application du présent document.
NOTE Le mesurage de la biodégradation aérobie peut également être obtenu en surveillant la consommation d'oxygène, comme décrit dans l'ISO 18830.
Les conditions décrites dans le présent document ne correspondent pas nécessairement aux conditions optimales permettant d'obtenir le taux maximal de biodégradation.

Polimerni materiali - Določanje aerobne biorazgradljivosti neplavajočih polimernih materialov v vmesnem predelu med morsko vodo in peščenim sedimentom - Metoda z analizo sproščenega ogljikovega dioksida (ISO 19679:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Dec-2019
Publication Date
19-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Jul-2020
Due Date
13-Sep-2020
Completion Date
20-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
01-september-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 19679:2018

Polimerni materiali - Določanje aerobne biorazgradljivosti neplavajočih polimernih

materialov v vmesnem predelu med morsko vodo in peščenim sedimentom -
Metoda z analizo sproščenega ogljikovega dioksida (ISO 19679:2020)

Plastics - Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a

seawater/sediment interface - Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide (ISO
19679:2020)
Kunststoffe - Bestimmung des aeroben Bioabbaus von nicht-schwimmenden

Kunststoffmaterialien in einer Meerwasser/Sediment-Schnittstelle - rüfverfahren mittels

Analyse des freigesetzten Kohlenstoffdioxids (ISO 19679:2020)

Plastiques - Détermination de la biodégradation aérobie des matières plastiques non-

flottantes dans une interface eau de mer/sédiments - Méthode par analyse du dioxyde

de carbone libéré (ISO 19679:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19679:2020
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
EN ISO 19679
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 19679:2017
English Version
Plastics - Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-
floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment interface
- Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide (ISO
19679:2020)

Plastiques - Détermination de la biodégradation Kunststoffe - Bestimmung des aeroben Bioabbaus von

aérobie des matières plastiques non-flottantes dans nicht-schwimmenden Kunststoffmaterialien in einer

une interface eau de mer/sédiments - Méthode par Meerwasser/Sediment-Schnittstelle - Prüfverfahren

analyse du dioxyde de carbone libéré (ISO mittels Analyse des freigesetzten Kohlenstoffdioxids

19679:2020) (ISO 19679:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 June 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19679:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
EN ISO 19679:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
EN ISO 19679:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19679:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by

NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 19679:2017.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19679:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19679:2020 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19679
Second edition
2020-06
Plastics — Determination of aerobic
biodegradation of non-floating plastic
materials in a seawater/sediment
interface — Method by analysis of
evolved carbon dioxide
Plastiques — Détermination de la biodégradation aérobie des
matières plastiques non-flottantes dans une interface eau de mer/
sédiments — Méthode par analyse du dioxyde de carbone libéré
Reference number
ISO 19679:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
ISO 19679:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
ISO 19679:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Test environment ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Test material ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8.2 Reference material ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.3 Preparation of the sediment ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.4 Test setup ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.5 Pre-conditioning phase .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.6 Start of the test ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.7 Carbon dioxide measurement .................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.8 End of the test .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................................................. 6

9.1 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

9.1.1 Amount of CO produced .......................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1.2 Percentage of biodegradation............................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3 Expression and interpretation of results ......................................................................................................................... 8

10 Validity of results ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Example of respirometric system based on CO measurement ...............................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
ISO 19679:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 14, Environmental

aspects, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee

CEN/TC 249, Plastics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 19679:2016), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— in Annex A: Density of O in air at 1 atm, 28 °C and a relative humidity of 100 % has been corrected

and the subsequent calculations have been adapted accordingly.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
ISO 19679:2020(E)
Introduction

Products made with biodegradable plastics are designed to be recovered by means of organic recycling

in composting plants or in anaerobic digesters. The uncontrolled dispersion of biodegradable plastics

in natural environments is not desirable. The biodegradability of products cannot be considered as an

excuse to spread wastes that should be recovered and recycled. However, test methods to measure rate

and level of biodegradation in natural environments (such as soil or the marine environment) are of

interest in order to better characterize the behaviour of plastics in these very particular environments.

As a matter of fact, some plastics are used in products that are applied in the sea (e.g. fishing gear)

and sometimes they can get lost or put willingly in the marine environment. The characterization of

biodegradable plastic materials can be enlarged by applying specific test methods that enable the

quantitative assessment of biodegradation of plastics exposed to marine sediment and seawater. Plastic

products are directly littered or arrive with fresh waters in the pelagic zone (free water). From there,

and depending on density, tides, currents, and marine fouling plastics can sink to the sublittoral, and

reach the seafloor surface. Many biodegradable plastics have a density higher than 1 and therefore tend

to sink. The sediment passes from aerobic to anoxic and finally anaerobic conditions going from the

surface (the interface with seawater) into deeper layers, displaying a very steep oxygen gradient.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19679:2020(E)
Plastics — Determination of aerobic biodegradation of
non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment
interface — Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide
1 Scope

This document specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic biodegradation of

plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between seawater and the

seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide (CO ). This test method can also be applied to other

solid materials.

This test method is a simulation under laboratory conditions of the habitat found in different seawater/

sediment-areas in the sea, e.g. in a benthic zone where sunlight reaches the ocean floor (photic zone)

that, in marine science, is called sublittoral zone

The determination of biodegradation of plastic materials and other solid materials buried in marine

sediment is outside the scope of this document.

NOTE Measurement of aerobic biodegradation can also be obtained by monitoring the oxygen consumption,

as described in ISO 18830.

The conditions described in this document do not always correspond to the optimum conditions for the

maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
theoretical amount of evolved carbon dioxide
ThCO

maximum theoretical amount of carbon dioxide evolved after completely oxidising a chemical compound,

calculated from the molecular formula or from determination of total organic carbon (TOC) (3.2)

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as mg of carbon dioxide evolved per mg or g of test compound.

3.2
total organic carbon
TOC
amount of carbon bound in an organic compound

Note 1 to entry: Total organic carbon is expressed as mg of carbon per 100 mg of the compound.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 19679:2020
ISO 19679:2020(E)
3.3
dissolved organic carbon
DOC

part of the organic carbon in water which cannot be removed by specified phase separation methods,

for example by centrifugation at 40 000 ms for 15 min or by membranes with pores of 0,2 µm to

0,45 µm diameter
3.4
pre-conditioning phase

pre-incubation of an inoculum under the conditions of the subsequent test in the absence of test material,

with the aim to consume potential organic matter present in excess that could disturb biodegradation

measurement and to improve the acclimatization of the microorganisms to the test conditions

4 Principle

This test method is based on the determination of evolved CO and derives from ISO 14852. The testing

medium is based on a solid phase and a liquid phase. The solid phase is a sandy marine sediment laid

in the bottom of a closed flask; the liquid phase is a column of natural or artificial sea water, poured on

the sediment. The test material is preferably in the form of a film to be laid down on top of the sediment,

at the interface between the solid phase and the liquid phase. This is a simulation of an object that has

sunk and finally reached the sea floor. The system is contained in a closed flask.

The CO evolved during the microbial degradation is determined by a suitable analytical method. The

level of biodegradation is determined by comparing the amount of CO evolved with the theoretical

amount (ThCO ) and expressed in percentage. The test result is the maximum level of biodegradation,

determined from the plateau phase of the biodegradation curve. The principle of a system for measuring

evolved CO is given in ISO 14852:2018, Annex A.

The details of interlaboratory testing based on the test method specified in this document are available

in Reference [6].
5 Test environment

Incubation shall take place in the dark or in diffuse light in an enclosure which is free from vapours

inhibitory to microorganisms and which is maintained at a constant temperature, preferably between

15 °C to 25 °C, but not exceeding 28 °C, to an accuracy of ± 2 °C. Any change in temperature shall be

justified and clearly indicated in the test report.

NOTE Temperatures applied in the test can be different from those found in marine environments

6 Reagents

6.1 Distilled or deionized water, free of toxic substances (copper in particular) and containing less

than 2
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
01-december-2019

Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje aerobne biodegradacije neplavajočih plastičnih

materialov v vmesnem predelu med morsko vodo in peščenim sedimentom -
Metoda z analizo sproščenega ogljikovega dioksida (ISO/DIS 19679:2019)

Plastics - Determination of aerobic biodegradation of non-floating plastic materials in a

seawater/sediment interface - Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide (ISO/DIS

19679:2019)
Kunststoffe - Bestimmung des aeroben Bioabbaus von nicht-schwimmenden

Kunststoffmaterialien in einer Meerwasser/Sediment-Schnittstelle - rüfverfahren mittels

Analyse des freigesetzten Kohlenstoffdioxids (ISO/DIS 19679:2019)

Plastiques - Détermination de la biodégradation aérobie des matières plastiques non-

flottantes dans une interface eau de mer/sédiments - Méthode par analyse du dioxyde

de carbone libéré (ISO/DIS 19679:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 19679
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 19679
ISO/TC 61/SC 14 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-10-01 2019-12-24
Plastics — Determination of aerobic biodegradation of
non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment
interface — Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide

Plastiques — Détermination de la biodégradation aérobie des matières plastiques non-flottantes à

l'interface eau de mer/sédiments — Méthode par analyse du dioxyde de carbone libéré

ICS: 83.080.01
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 19679:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
ISO/DIS 19679:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
ISO/DIS 19679:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Test environment ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Test material ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

8.2 Reference material ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.3 Preparation of the sediment ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.4 Test setup ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.5 Pre-conditioning phase .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.6 Start of the test ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.7 Carbon dioxide measurement .................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.8 End of the test .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................................................. 6

9.1 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

9.1.1 Amount of CO produced .......................................................................................................................................... 6

9.1.2 Percentage of biodegradation............................................................................................................................... 8

9.2 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3 Expression and interpretation of results ......................................................................................................................... 9

10 Validity of results ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Example of respirometric system based on CO measurement ...............................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 19679:2019
ISO/DIS 19679:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 14, Environmental

aspects.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 19679:2016), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Annex A: Density of O in air at 1 atm, 28 °C and a relative humidity of 100 % was corrected and the

following calculations adapted accordingly.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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Introduction

Products made with biodegradable plastics are designed to be recovered by means of organic recycling

in composting plants or in anaerobic digesters. The uncontrolled dispersion of biodegradable plastics

in natural environments is not desirable. The biodegradability of products cannot be considered as an

excuse to spread wastes that should be recovered and recycled. However, test methods to measure rate

and level of biodegradation in natural environments (such as soil or the marine environment) are of

interest in order to better characterize the behaviour of plastics in these very particular environments.

As a matter of fact, some plastics are used in products that are applied in the sea (e.g. fishing gear)

and sometimes they can get lost or put willingly in marine environment. The characterization of

biodegradable plastic materials can be enlarged by applying specific test methods that enable the

quantitative assessment of biodegradation of plastics exposed to marine sediment and seawater. Plastic

products are directly littered or arrive with fresh waters in the pelagic zone (free water). From there,

and depending on density, tides, currents, and marine fouling plastics may sink to the sublittoral, and

reach the seafloor surface. Many biodegradable plastics have a density higher than 1 and therefore tend

to sink. The sediment passes from aerobic to anoxic and finally anaerobic conditions going from the

surface (the interface with seawater) into deeper layers, displaying a very steep oxygen gradient.

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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 19679:2019(E)
Plastics — Determination of aerobic biodegradation of
non-floating plastic materials in a seawater/sediment
interface — Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a test method to determine the degree and rate of aerobic

biodegradation of plastic materials when settled on marine sandy sediment at the interface between

seawater and the seafloor, by measuring the evolved carbon dioxide.

This test method is a simulation under laboratory conditions of the habitat found in different seawater/

sediment-areas in the sea, e.g. in a benthic zone where sunlight reaches the ocean floor (photic zone)

that, in marine science, is called sublittoral zone

The determination of biodegradation of plastic materials buried in marine sediment is outside the

scope of this International Standard.

Measurement of aerobic biodegradation can also be obtained by monitoring the oxygen consumption,

as described in ISO 18830.

The conditions described in this International Standard may not always correspond to the optimum

conditions for the maximum degree of biodegradation to occur.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14852:1999, Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials in an aqueous

medium — Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide

ISO 8245, Water quality — Guidelines for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved

organic carbon (DOC)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
theoretical amount of evolved carbon dioxide
ThCO

maximum theoretical amount of carbon dioxide evolved after completely oxidising a chemical

compound, calculated from the molecular formula or from determination of total organic carbon (TOC)

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as milligrams of carbon dioxide evolved per milligram or gram of test compound.

3.2
total organic carbon
TOC
amount of carbon bound in an organic compound

Note 1 to entry: Total organic carbon is expressed as milligrams of carbon per 100 mg of the compound.

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3.3
dissolved organic carbon
DOC

that part of the organic carbon in water which cannot be removed by specified phase separation

methods, for example by centrifugation at 40 000 ms for 15 min or by membranes with pores of

0,2 µm to 0,45 µm diameter
3.4
pre-conditioning phase

pre-incubation of an inoculum under the conditions of the subsequent test in the absence of test material,

with the aim to consume potential organic matter present in excess that could disturb biodegradation

measurement and to improve the acclimatization of the microorganisms to the test conditions

4 Principle

This test method is based on the determination of evolved carbon dioxide and derives from ISO 14852.

The testing medium is based on a solid phase and a liquid phase. The solid phase is a sandy marine

sediment laid in the bottom of a closed flask; the liquid phase is a column of natural or artificial sea

water, poured on the sediment. The test material is preferably in the form of a film to be laid down on

top of the sediment, at the interface between the solid phase and the liquid phase. This is a simulation of

an object that has sunk and finally reached the sea floor. The system is contained in a closed flask.

The carbon dioxide evolved during the microbial degradation is determined by a suitable analytical

method. The level of biodegradation is determined by comparing the amount of carbon dioxide evolved

with the theoretical amount (ThCO ) and expressed in percentage. The test result is the maximum level

of biodegradation, determined from the plateau phase of the biodegradation curve. The principle of a

system for measuring evolved carbon dioxide is given in ISO 14852:1999, Annex A.

The details of interlaboratory testing based on the test method specified in this International Standard

[5]
are available in Reference .
5 Test environment

Incubation shall take place in the dark or in diffuse light in an enclosure which is free from vapours

inhibitory to microorganisms and which is maintained at a constant temperature, preferably between

15 °C to 25 °C, but not exceeding 28 °C, to an accuracy of ±2 °C. Any change in temperature shall be

justified and clearly indicated in the test report.

NOTE Test results are obtained for temperature that may be different from real conditions in marine

environment.
6 Reagents

6.1 Distilled or deionized water, free of toxic substances (copper in particular) and containing less

than 2 mg/l of DOC.
6.2 Artificial seawater
Dissolve:
Sodium chloride (NaCl) 22 g
Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl · 6 H O) 9,7 g
2 2
Sodium sulfate (Na SO ) 3,7 g
2 4
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Calcium chloride (CaCl ) 1 g
Potassium chloride (KCl) 0,65 g
Sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO ) 0,20 g
in water (6.1) and make up to 1 000 ml.
6.3 Natural seawater/sediment

Take a sample of a sandy sediment and seawater with a shovel beneath the low-water line into a bucket.

Transfer the wet sediment together with seawater into sealed containers for transport and fast deliver

it to the laboratory. After delivery, conserve the sediment at low temperature (approximately 4 °C) until

use. The seawater/sediment sample should be preferably used within 4 weeks after sampling. Record

storage time and conditions.

NOTE Seawater and sediment can also be sampled from large, well-running public marine aquaria.

Measure the TOC, pH and nitrogen content of the sediment and of the natural seawater if used instead

of artificial seawater. The carbon content of sediment should be in the range of 0,1 % to 2 %.

A preliminary oxidation can be applied to the sediment in order to dec
...

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