Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production - Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials (ISO 15156-1:2020)

This document describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the
selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production
and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H2S-containing environments, where the failure of such
equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment.
It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but
does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or
regulations.
This document addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including sulfide stress
cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented
hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking.
Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including
exclusions.
This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and
constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,
see Clause 5.
This document is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes
and equipment.

Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den Einsatz in H<(Index)2>S-haltiger Umgebung bei der Öl- und Gasgewinnung - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundlagen für die Auswahl von gegen Rissbildung beständigen Werkstoffen (ISO 15156-1:2020)

Dieses Dokument beschreibt allgemeine Grundlagen, nennt Anforderungen und gibt Empfehlungen für die Auswahl und Qualifizierung von metallischen Werkstoffen für den Einsatz in Einrichtungen der Öl  und Gasgewinnung und in Sauergasaufbereitungsanlagen im Bereich H2S haltiger Umgebungen, deren Versagen ein mögliches Gesundheits  und Sicherheitsrisiko für die Allgemeinheit und das Personal oder für die Umwelt darstellen kann. Es kann angewendet werden zur Vermeidung kostspieliger Beschädigungen infolge von Korrosion der Anlage selbst. Es ergänzt, ersetzt aber nicht die in einschlägigen Konstruktionsrichtlinien, Normen oder Regelwerken enthaltenen Anforderungen an Werkstoffe.
Dieses Dokument behandelt alle Rissbildungsarten, die durch H2S verursacht werden können, einschließlich H2S induzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion (SSC), Spannungsrisskorrosion (SCC), wasserstoffinduzierte Rissbil¬dung (HIC) und Stufenrissbildung (SWC), spannungsorientierte wasserstoffinduzierte Rissbildung (SOHIC), Weichzonenrissbildung (SZC) und galvanisch induzierte wasserstoffinduzierte Rissbildung (GHSC).
Tabelle 1 enthält als nicht erschöpfende Liste eine Übersicht von Ausrüstungen, die in den Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokumentes fallen, einschließlich Ausnahmen.
Dieses Dokument gilt für die Qualifizierung und Auswahl von Werkstoffen für Ausrüstungen, die unter Verwendung von lastgesteuerten Auslegungsverfahren ausgelegt und gebaut wurden. Siehe Abschnitt 5 bezüglich Konstruktionen, bei denen auf Dehnung beruhende Auslegungsverfahren zur Anwendung kommen.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht zwangsläufig auch für die Anwendung auf Ausrüstungen in Raffinerien oder Verfahren und Einrichtungen geeignet, die der Öl  und Gasgewinnung nachgeschaltet sind.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux pour utilisation dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et de gaz - Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le choix des matériaux résistant à la fissuration (ISO 15156-1:2020)

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Materiali za uporabo v okoljih s H2S v proizvodnji olja in plina - 1. del: Splošna načela za izbiro materialov, odpornih proti razpokam (ISO 15156-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
10-Sep-2020
Publication Date
08-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Dec-2020
Due Date
07-Feb-2021
Completion Date
09-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
01-januar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2015

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Materiali za uporabo v okoljih s

H2S v proizvodnji olja in plina - 1. del: Splošna načela za izbiro materialov,
odpornih proti razpokam (ISO 15156-1:2020)

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments

in oil and gas production - Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant

materials (ISO 15156-1:2020)
Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den Einsatz in H<(Index)2>S-haltiger
Umgebung bei der Öl- und Gasgewinnung - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundlagen für die
Auswahl von gegen Rissbildung beständigen Werkstoffen (ISO 15156-1:2020)
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux pour utilisation dans des

environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et

de gaz - Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le choix des matériaux résistant à la
fissuration (ISO 15156-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 15156-1:2020
ICS:
75.180.10 Oprema za raziskovanje, Exploratory, drilling and
vrtanje in odkopavanje extraction equipment
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
EN ISO 15156-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.180.01 Supersedes EN ISO 15156-1:2015
English Version
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in
H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production -
Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-
resistant materials (ISO 15156-1:2020)

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux Erdöl und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den

pour utilisation dans des environnements contenant de Einsatz in H2S haltiger Umgebung bei der Öl und

l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de Gasgewinnung - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundlagen für die

pétrole et de gaz - Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le Auswahl von gegen Rissbildung beständigen

choix des matériaux résistant à la fissuration (ISO Werkstoffen (ISO 15156 1:2020)

15156-1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 October 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 15156-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
EN ISO 15156-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
EN ISO 15156-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 15156-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67

"Materials, equipment and offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries"

in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 12 “Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries” the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 15156-1:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 15156-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 15156-1:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15156-1
Fourth edition
2020-11
Petroleum and natural gas
industries — Materials for use in H₂S-
containing environments in oil and
gas production —
Part 1:
General principles for selection of
cracking-resistant materials
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Matériaux pour utilisation
dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H₂S) dans
la production de pétrole et de gaz —
Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le choix des matériaux résistant à la
fissuration
Reference number
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1  Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ......................................................................................................................................................................................2

3  Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................................................................................................2

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 General principles ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6  Evaluation and definition of service conditions to enable material selection .....................................7

7  Selection of materials resistant to SSC/SCC in the presence of sulfides from existing

lists and tables ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8  Qualification of materials for HS service .................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1 Material description and documentation ........................................................................................................................ 8

8.2 Qualification based upon field experience ...................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Qualification based upon laboratory testing ................................................................................................................. 8

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.2 Sampling of materials for laboratory testing .......................................................................................... 9

8.3.3 Selection of laboratory test methods ............................................................................................................. 9

8.3.4 Conditions to be applied during testing ...................................................................................................... 9

8.3.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

9  Report of the method of selection or qualification ........................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore

structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 12, Materials, equipment and

offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 15156-1:2015), which has been

technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new definition on "galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking" (see 3.14), "chemical activity"

(see 3.27) and "fugacity" (see 3.28);

— inclusion of an expanded description of factors affecting the susceptibility of materials to cracking

caused by H S. The expanded description includes specific guidance provided in ISO 15156-2:2020,

Annex C for gas phase containing systems using H S fugacity (as an alternative to H S partial

2 2

pressure) and application of non-ideal thermodynamic rules for gas-free liquid systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO 15156 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The consequences of sudden failures of metallic oil and gas field components, associated with their

exposure to H S-containing production fluids, led to the preparation of the first edition of NACE MR0175,

which was published in 1975 by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, now known as NACE

International.

The original and subsequent editions of NACE MR0175 established limits of H S partial pressure above

which precautions against sulfide stress cracking (SSC) were always considered necessary. They

also provided guidance for the selection and specification of SSC-resistant materials when the H S

thresholds were exceeded. In more recent editions, NACE MR0175 has also provided application limits

for some corrosion-resistant alloys, in terms of environmental composition and pH, temperature, and

H S partial pressures.

In separate developments, the European Federation of Corrosion issued EFC Publication 16 in 1995 and

EFC Publication 17 in 1996. These documents are generally complementary to those of NACE though

they differed in scope and detail.

In 2003, the publication of the ISO 15156 series and NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 was completed for the

first time. These technically identical documents utilized the above sources to provide requirements

and recommendations for materials qualification and selection for application in environments

containing wet H S in oil and gas production systems. They are complemented by NACE TM0177 and

NACE TM0284 test methods.

The revision of this document, i.e. ISO 15156-1, involves a consolidation of all changes agreed and

published in the Technical Circular 1, ISO 15156-1:2015/Cir.1:2017, published by the ISO 15156 series

Maintenance Agency secretariat at DIN.

The changes were developed by, and approved by the ballot of, representative groups from within

the oil and gas production industry. The great majority of these changes stem from issues raised by

document users. A description of the process by which these changes were approved can be found at

the ISO 15156 series maintenance website: www .iso .org/ iso15156maintenance.

When found necessary by oil and gas production industry experts, future interim changes to this

document will be processed in the same way and will lead to interim updates to this document in

the form of Technical Corrigenda or Technical Circulars. Document users should be aware that such

documents can exist and can impact the validity of the dated references in this document.

The ISO 15156 series Maintenance Agency at DIN was set up after approval by the ISO Technical

Management Board given in document 34/2007. This document describes the makeup of the agency,

which includes experts from NACE, EFC, and ISO/TC 67, and the process for approval of amendments.

It is available from the ISO 15156 series maintenance website and from the ISO/TC 67 Secretariat. The

website also provides access to related documents that provide more detail of the ISO 15156 series

maintenance activities.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD  ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials
for use in H₂S-containing environments in oil and gas
production —
Part 1:
General principles for selection of cracking-resistant
materials

WARNING — Metallic materials selected using this document are resistant to cracking in defined

HS-containing environments in oil and gas production but not necessarily immune to cracking

under all service conditions. It is the equipment user's responsibility to select materials suitable

for the intended service.
1  Scope

This document describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the

selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production

and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H S-containing environments, where the failure of such

equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment.

It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but

does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or

regulations.

This document addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H S, including sulfide stress

cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented

hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking.

Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including

exclusions.

This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and

constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,

see Clause 5.

This document is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes

and equipment.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
Table 1 — List of equipment
This document is applicable to materials used for  Exclusions
the following equipment

Drilling, well construction, and well-servicing Equipment exposed only to drilling fluids of controlled

equipment composition
Drill bits
Blowout preventer (BOP) shear blades
Drilling riser systems
Work strings
Wireline and wireline equipment
Surface and intermediate casing
Wells, including subsurface equipment, gas-lift Sucker rod pumps and sucker rods
equipment, wellheads, and christmas trees
Electric submersible pumps
Other artificial lift equipment
Slips

Flowlines, gathering lines, field facilities, and field Crude-oil storage and handling facilities operating at a

processing plants total absolute pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water-handling equipment Water-handling facilities operating at a total absolute
pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water injection and water disposal equipment
Natural-gas treatment plants —

Transportation pipelines for liquids, gases, and Lines handling gas prepared for general commercial

multiphase fluids and domestic use
For all equipment above Components loaded only in compression
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.3 for more information.
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.1 for more information.
Wireline lubricators and lubricator connecting devices are not excluded.
For sucker rod pumps and sucker rods, reference can be made to NACE MR0176.
2  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15156-2, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in

oil and gas production — Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and the use of cast irons

ISO 15156-3, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in

oil and gas production — Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys

3  Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
2  © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
blowout preventer
BOP

mechanical device capable of containing pressure, used for control of well fluids and drilling fluids

during drilling operations
3.2
brazing

joining metals by flowing a thin layer (of capillary thickness) of a lower-melting-point non-ferrous filler

metal in the space between them
3.3
carbon steel

alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2 % mass fraction carbon and up to 1,65 % mass fraction

manganese and residual quantities of other elements, except those intentionally added in specific

quantities for deoxidation (usually silicon and/or aluminium)

Note 1 to entry: Carbon steels used in the petroleum industry usually contain less than 0,8 % mass fraction carbon.

3.4
christmas tree
equipment at a wellhead for the control of fluid production or injection
3.5
cold work

plastic deformation of metal under conditions of temperature and strain rate that induce strain

hardening, usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature
3.6
corrosion-resistant alloy
CRA

alloy intended to be resistant to general and localized corrosion of oilfield environments that are

corrosive to carbon steels (3.3)
3.7
ferrite
body-centred cubic crystalline phase of iron-based alloys
3.8
ferritic steel

steel whose microstructure (3.16) at room temperature consists predominantly of ferrite (3.7)

3.9
hardness
resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually measured by indentation
3.10
heat-affected zone
HAZ

portion of the base metal that is not melted during brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose microstructure

(3.16) and properties are altered by the heat of these processes
3.11
heat treatment

heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired properties

Note 1 to entry: Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is not considered heat treatment.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
3.12
hydrogen-induced cracking
HIC

planar cracking that occurs in carbon and low alloy steels when atomic hydrogen diffuses into the steel

and then combines to form molecular hydrogen at trap sites

Note 1 to entry: Cracking results from the pressurization of trap sites by hydrogen. No externally applied stress

is required for the formation of hydrogen-induced cracks. Trap sites capable of causing HIC are commonly found

in steels with high impurity levels that have a high density of planar inclusions and/or regions of anomalous

microstructure (3.16) (e.g. banding) produced by segregation of impurity and alloying elements in the steel. This

form of hydrogen-induced cracking is not related to welding.
3.13
hydrogen stress cracking
HSC

cracking that results from the presence of hydrogen in a metal and tensile stress (residual and/or

applied)
Note 1 to entry: SSC and GHSC are forms of HSC.
3.14
galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking
GHSC

cracking that results due to the presence of hydrogen in a metal induced in the cathode of a galvanic

couple and tensile stress (residual and/or applied)
3.15
low-alloy steel

steel with a total alloying element content of less than about 5 % mass fraction, but more than specified

for carbon steel (3.3)
3.16
microstructure

structure of a metal as revealed by microscopic examination of a suitably prepared specimen

3.17
partial pressure

pressure that would be exerted by a single component of a gas if present alone, at the same temperature,

in the total volume occupied by the mixture

Note 1 to entry: For a mixture of ideal gases, the partial pressure of each component is equal to the total pressure

multiplied by its mole fraction in the mixture, where its mole fraction is equal to the volume fraction of the

component.
3.18
residual stress
stress present in a component free of external forces or thermal gradients
3.19
soft-zone cracking
SZC

form of SSC that can occur when a steel contains a local “soft zone” of low-yield-strength material

Note 1 to entry: Under service loads, soft zones can yield and accumulate plastic strain locally, increasing the SSC

susceptibility to cracking of an otherwise SSC-resistant material. Such soft zones are typically associated with

welds in carbon steels (3.3).
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15156-1:2021
ISO 15156-1:2020(E)
3.20
sour service

exposure to oilfield environments that contain sufficient H S to cause cracking of materials by specific

mechanisms
Note 1 to entry: These specific mechanisms are addressed in this document.
3.21
stepwise cracking
SWC
cracking that connects hydrogen-induced cracks on adjacent planes in a steel

Note 1 to entry: This term describes the crack appearance. The linking of hydrogen-induced cracks to produce

stepwise cracking is dependent on the local strain between the cracks and the embrittlement of the surrounding

steel by dissolved hydrogen. HIC/SWC is usually associated with low-strength plate steels used in the production

of pipes and vessels.
3.22
stress corrosion cracking
SCC

cracking of metal involving anodic processes of localized corrosion and tensile stress (residual and/or

applied) in the presence of water and H S

Note 1 to entry: Chlorides and/or oxidants and elevated temperature can increase the susceptibility of metals to

this mechanism of attack.
3.23
stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking
SOHIC

staggered small cracks formed approximately perpendicular to the principal stress (residual or applied)

resulting in a “ladder-like” crack array linking (sometimes small) pre-existing HIC cracks

Note 1 to entry: The mode of cracking can be categorized as SSC caused by a combination of external stress and

the local strain around hydrogen-induced cracks. SOHIC is related to SSC and HIC/SWC. It has been observed

in parent material of longitudinally welded pipe and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) (3.10) of welds in pressure

vessels. SOHIC is a relatively uncommon phenomenon usually associated with low-strength ferritic pipe and

pressure vessel steels.
3.24
sulfide stress cracking
SSC

cracking of metal involving corrosion and tensile stress (residual and/or applied) in the presence of

water and H S

Note 1 to entry: SSC is a form of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) (3.13) and involves the embrittlement of the metal

by atomic hydrogen that is produced by acid corrosion on the metal surface. Hydrogen uptake is promoted in the

presence of sulfides. The atomic hydrogen can diffuse into the metal, reduce ductility, and increase susceptibility

to cracking. High-strength metallic materials and hard weld zones are prone to SSC.

3.25
weld

joint between two or more pieces of metal by applying heat and/or pressure with or without filler metal,

to produce a union through localized fusion of the substrates and solidification across the interfaces

3.26
yield strength

stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from the proportionality of stress to

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
01-september-2020

Industrija za predelavo nafte in zemeljskega plina - Materiali za uporabo v okoljih s

H2S v proizvodnji olja in plina - 1. del: Splošna načela za izbiro materialov,
odpornih proti razpokam (ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020)

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments

in oil and gas production - Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant

materials (ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020)
Erdöl- und Erdgasindustrie - Werkstoffe für den Einsatz in H<(Index)2>S-haltiger
Umgebung bei der Öl- und Gasgewinnung - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundlagen für die
Auswahl von gegen Rissbildung beständigen Werkstoffen (ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020)
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel - Matériaux pour utilisation dans des

environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et

de gaz - Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le choix des matériaux résistant à la
fissuration (ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 15156-1
ICS:
75.180.10 Oprema za raziskovanje, Exploratory, drilling and
vrtanje in odkopavanje extraction equipment
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 15156-1
ISO/TC 67
Petroleum and natural gas
Secretariat: NEN
industries — Materials for use in H S-
Voting begins on:
2020-06-19 containing environments in oil and
gas production —
Voting terminates on:
2020-09-11
Part 1:
General principles for selection of
cracking-resistant materials
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Matériaux pour utilisation
dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S)
dans la production de pétrole et de gaz —
Partie 1: Principes généraux pour le choix des matériaux résistant à la
fissuration
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 General principles ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Evaluation and definition of service conditions to enable material selection .....................................7

7 Selection of materials resistant to SSC/SCC in the presence of sulfides from existing

lists and tables ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

8 Qualification of materials for H S service .................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1 Material description and documentation ........................................................................................................................ 8

8.2 Qualification based upon field experience ...................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Qualification based upon laboratory testing ................................................................................................................. 8

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.2 Sampling of materials for laboratory testing .......................................................................................... 9

8.3.3 Selection of laboratory test methods ............................................................................................................. 9

8.3.4 Conditions to be applied during testing ...................................................................................................... 9

8.3.5 Acceptance criteria ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

9 Report of the method of selection or qualification ........................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore

structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in collaboration with the European

Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 12, Materials, equipment and

offshore structures for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 15156-1:2015), which has been

technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new definition on "galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking" (see 3.14), "chemical activity"

(see 3.27) and "fugacity" (see 3.28);

— inclusion of an expanded description of factors affecting the susceptibility of materials to cracking

caused by H S. The expanded description includes specific guidance provided in ISO 15156-2:2020,

Annex C for gas phase containing systems using H S fugacity (as an alternative to H S partial

2 2

pressure) and application of non-ideal thermodynamic rules for gas-free liquid systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO 15156 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
Introduction

The consequences of sudden failures of metallic oil and gas field components, associated with their

exposure to H S-containing production fluids, led to the preparation of the first edition of NACE MR0175,

which was published in 1975 by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, now known as NACE

International.

The original and subsequent editions of NACE MR0175 established limits of H S partial pressure above

which precautions against sulfide stress-cracking (SSC) were always considered necessary. They

also provided guidance for the selection and specification of SSC-resistant materials when the H S

thresholds were exceeded. In more recent editions, NACE MR0175 has also provided application limits

for some corrosion-resistant alloys, in terms of environmental composition and pH, temperature, and

H S partial pressures.

In separate developments, the European Federation of Corrosion issued EFC Publication 16 in 1995 and

EFC Publication 17 in 1996. These documents are generally complementary to those of NACE though

they differed in scope and detail.

In 2003, the publication of the ISO 15156 series and NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 was completed for the

first time. These technically identical documents utilized the above sources to provide requirements

and recommendations for materials qualification and selection for application in environments

containing wet H S in oil and gas production systems. They are complemented by NACE TM0177 and

NACE TM0284 test methods.

The revision of this document, i.e. ISO 15156-1, involves a consolidation of all changes agreed and

published in the Technical Circular 1, ISO 15156-1:2015/Cir.1:2017, published by the ISO 15156 series

Maintenance Agency secretariat at DIN.

The changes were developed by, and approved by the ballot of, representative groups from within

the oil and gas production industry. The great majority of these changes stem from issues raised by

document users. A description of the process by which these changes were approved can be found at

the ISO 15156 series maintenance website: www .iso .org/ iso15156maintenance.

When found necessary by oil and gas production industry experts, future interim changes to this

document will be processed in the same way and will lead to interim updates to this document in

the form of Technical Corrigenda or Technical Circulars. Document users should be aware that such

documents can exist and can impact the validity of the dated references in this document.

The ISO 15156 series Maintenance Agency at DIN was set up after approval by the ISO Technical

Management Board given in document 34/2007. This document describes the makeup of the agency,

which includes experts from NACE, EFC, and ISO/TC 67, and the process for approval of amendments.

It is available from the ISO 15156 series maintenance website and from the ISO/TC 67 Secretariat. The

website also provides access to related documents that provide more detail of the ISO 15156 series

maintenance activities.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials
for use in H S-containing environments in oil and gas
production —
Part 1:
General principles for selection of cracking-resistant
materials

WARNING — Metallic materials selected using this document are resistant to cracking in defined

H S-containing environments in oil and gas production but not necessarily immune to cracking

under all service conditions. It is the equipment user's responsibility to select materials suitable

for the intended service.
1 Scope

This document describes general principles and gives requirements and recommendations for the

selection and qualification of metallic materials for service in equipment used in oil and gas production

and in natural-gas sweetening plants in H S-containing environments, where the failure of such

equipment can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment.

It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but

does not replace, the materials requirements given in the appropriate design codes, standards, or

regulations.

This document addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H S, including sulfide stress

cracking, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking and stepwise cracking, stress-oriented

hydrogen-induced cracking, soft zone cracking, and galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking.

Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this document is applicable, including

exclusions.

This document applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and

constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,

see Clause 5.

This document is not necessarily applicable to equipment used in refining or downstream processes

and equipment.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
Table 1 — List of equipment
This document is applicable to materials used for Exclusions
the following equipment

Drilling, well construction, and well-servicing Equipment exposed only to drilling fluids of controlled

equipment composition
Drill bits
Blowout preventer (BOP) shear blades
Drilling riser systems
Work strings
Wireline and wireline equipment
Surface and intermediate casing
Wells, including subsurface equipment, gas-lift Sucker rod pumps and sucker rods
equipment, wellheads, and christmas trees
Electric submersible pumps
Other artificial lift equipment
Slips

Flowlines, gathering lines, field facilities, and field Crude-oil storage and handling facilities operating at a

processing plants total absolute pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water-handling equipment Water-handling facilities operating at a total absolute
pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water injection and water disposal equipment
Natural-gas treatment plants —

Transportation pipelines for liquids, gases, and Lines handling gas prepared for general commercial

multiphase fluids and domestic use
For all equipment above Components loaded only in compression
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.3 for more information.
See ISO 15156-2:2020, A.2.3.2.1 for more information.
Wireline lubricators and lubricator connecting devices are not excluded.
For sucker rod pumps and sucker rods, reference can be made to NACE MR0176.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15156-2, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in

oil and gas production — Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and the use of cast irons

ISO 15156-3, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments in

oil and gas production — Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 15156-1:2020
ISO/FDIS 15156-1:2020(E)
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
blowout preventer
BOP

mechanical device capable of containing pressure, used for control of well fluids and drilling fluids

during drilling operations
3.2
brazing

joining metals by flowing a thin layer (of capillary thickness) of a lower-melting-point non-ferrous filler

metal in the space between them
3.3
carbon steel

alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2 % mass fraction carbon and up to 1,65 % mass fraction

manganese and residual quantities of other elements, except those intentionally added in specific

quantities for deoxidation (usually silicon and/or aluminium)

Note 1 to entry: Carbon steels used in the petroleum industry usually contain less than 0,8 % mass fraction carbon.

3.4
christmas tree
equipment at a wellhead for the control of fluid production or injection
3.5
cold work

plastic deformation of metal under conditions of temperature and strain rate that induce strain

hardening, usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature
3.6
corrosion-resistant alloy
CRA

alloy intended to be resistant to general and localized corrosion of oilfield environments that are

corrosive to carbon steels (3.3)
3.7
ferrite
body-centred cubic crystalline phase of iron-based alloys
3.8
ferritic steel

steel whose microstructure (3.16) at room temperature consists predominantly of ferrite (3.7)

3.9
hardness
resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually measured by indentation
3.10
heat-affected zone
HAZ

portion of the base metal that is not melted during brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose microstructure

(3.16) and properties are altered by the heat of these processes
3.11
heat treatment
heating and cooling a solid met
...

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