Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-1:2019)

This document specifies the general principles for determining the tensile properties of plastics and plastic composites under defined conditions. Several different types of test specimen are defined to suit different types of material which are detailed in subsequent parts of ISO 527. The methods are used to investigate the tensile behaviour of the test specimens and for determining the tensile strength, tensile modulus and other aspects of the tensile stress/strain relationship under the conditions defined. The methods are selectively suitable for use with the following materials: - rigid and semi-rigid moulding, extrusion and cast thermoplastic materials, including filled and reinforced compounds in addition to unfilled types; rigid and semi-rigid thermoplastics sheets and films; - rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting moulding materials, including filled and reinforced compounds; rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting sheets, including laminates; - fibre-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or non-unidirectional reinforcements, such as mat, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands, combination and hybrid reinforcement, rovings and milled fibres; sheet made from pre-impregnated materials (prepregs); - thermotropic liquid crystal polymers. The methods are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, for which ISO 1926 is used, or for sandwich structures containing cellular materials.

Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Zugeigenschaften - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 527-1:2019)

1.1 Dieses Dokument legt die allgemeinen Grundsätze zur Bestimmung der Zugeigenschaften von Kunst-stoffen und Kunststoff-Verbundwerkstoffen unter festgelegten Bedingungen fest. Mehrere verschiedene Probekörpertypen sind für unterschiedliche Werkstoffarten festgelegt, die in den folgenden Teilen von ISO 527 näher beschrieben werden.
1.2 Die Verfahren werden verwendet, um das Zugverformungsverhalten von Probekörpern zu untersu-chen und die Zugfestigkeit, den Zugmodul und andere Gesichtspunkte der Zugspannungs-/Dehnungs-Bezie-hung unter festgelegten Bedingungen zu ermitteln.
1.3 Die Verfahren sind speziell zur Anwendung bei folgenden Werkstoffgruppen geeignet:
- steife und halbsteife thermoplastische Spritzguss-, Extrusions- und Gussformmassen, einschließlich gefüllter und verstärkter Verbunde als Ergänzung zu ungefüllten Sorten; steife und halbsteife thermo-plastische Platten und Folien;
- steife und halbsteife duroplastische Formmassen, einschließlich gefüllter und verstärkter Verbunde; steife und halbsteife duroplastische Platten einschließlich Schichtstoffe;
- faserverstärkte duroplastische und thermoplastische Verbundwerkstoffe mit unidirektionaler oder nichtunidirektionaler Verstärkung, wie Matten, Vliese und Gelege, Gewebe, Rovinggewebe, Kombina-tions- und Mischverstärkung, Stränge (Rovings) und Kurzfasern; Tafeln aus vorgetränkten Werkstoffen (Prepregs);
- thermotrope flüssigkristalline Polymere.
Die Verfahren sind üblicherweise nicht zur Anwendung mit harten Schaumstoffen, für die ISO 1926 ange-wendet wird, oder für Schichtstoff-Verbundwerkstoffe mit Schaumstoffkern geeignet.

Plastiques - Détermination des propriétés en traction - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 527-1:2019)

1.1 Le présent document spécifie les principes généraux pour la détermination des propriétés en traction des plastiques et des composites en plastique dans des conditions définies. Plusieurs types différents d'éprouvettes sont définis en fonction des différents types de matériaux qui sont énumérés dans les parties suivantes de I'ISO 527.
1.2 Les méthodes sont utilisées pour étudier le comportement en traction des éprouvettes par la détermination de la résistance en traction, du module d'élasticité en traction et d'autres aspects de la relation contrainte/déformation en traction dans des conditions définies.
1.3 Les méthodes conviennent sélectivement aux matériaux suivants:
— matières thermoplastiques rigides et semi-rigides pour moulage, extrusion et coulée, y compris les compositions chargées et renforcées en plus des types non chargés; feuilles et films en thermoplastiques rigides et semi-rigides;
— matières thermodurcissables rigides et semi-rigides pour moulage, y compris les compositions chargées et renforcées; feuilles thermodurcissables rigides et semi-rigides, y compris les stratifiés;
— composites thermoplastiques et thermodurcissables renforcés de fibres comportant des renforts unidirectionnels et multidirectionnels tels que mats, tissus, tissus stratifils, fils coupés, combinaisons de renforcements et hybrides, stratifils et fibres broyées; feuilles réalisées à partir de matières préimprégnées (préimprégnés);
— polymères à cristaux liquides thermotropes.
En principe, les méthodes ne peuvent pas être appliquées aux matériaux alvéolaires rigides, pour lesquels l'ISO 1926 est utilisée, ou aux structures sandwichs contenant des matériaux alvéolaires.

Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje nateznih lastnosti - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO 527-1:2019)

Ta dokument določa splošna načela za ugotavljanje nateznih lastnosti polimernih materialov in polimernih kompozitov pri določenih pogojih. Opredeljenih je več vrst preskušancev, da se zajamejo različne vrste materialov, ki so podrobno opisane v poznejših delih standarda ISO 527. Uporabljene so metode za preučevanje nateznih lastnosti preskušancev ter za ugotavljanje natezne trdnosti, nateznega modula in drugih vidikov razmerja natezna napetost/deformacija pri določenih pogojih. Metode so selektivno ustrezne za naslednje materiale:  – trdi in poltrdi plastomerni materiali za oblikovanje, ekstrudiranje in vlivanje, vključno s polnjenimi in ojačanimi spojinami poleg nepolnjenih vrst; trdi in poltrdi plastomerni trakovi in filmi; – trdi in poltrdi termoreaktivni materiali za oblikovanje, vključno s polnjenimi in ojačanimi spojinami; trdi in poltrdi termoreaktivni trakovi, vključno z laminati; – z vlakni ojačani termoreaktivni in plastomerni kompoziti, ki vsebujejo enosmerne ali večsmerne ojačitve, kot so mati, tkanine, tkani rovingi, rezane niti, kombinacijske in hibridne ojačitve, rovingi in brušena vlakna; trakovi iz predhodno impregniranih materialov; – termotropni polimeri iz tekočih kristalov. Metode običajno niso primerne za trde penjene materiale, za katere se uporablja standard ISO 1926, ali za strukture tipa »sendvič«, ki vsebujejo penjene materiale.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Sep-2018
Publication Date
03-Oct-2019
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Oct-2019
Due Date
06-Dec-2019
Completion Date
04-Oct-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
01-december-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 527-1:2012

Polimerni materiali - Ugotavljanje nateznih lastnosti - 1. del: Splošna načela (ISO

527-1:2019)

Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-

1:2019)

Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Zugeigenschaften - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO

527-1:2019)

Plastiques - Détermination des propriétés en traction - Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO

527-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 527-1:2019
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
EN ISO 527-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.080.01 Supersedes EN ISO 527-1:2012
English Version
Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1:
General principles (ISO 527-1:2019)

Plastiques - Détermination des propriétés en traction - Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Zugeigenschaften - Teil

Partie 1: Principes généraux (ISO 527-1:2019) 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (ISO 527-1:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 July 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 527-1:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
EN ISO 527-1:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
EN ISO 527-1:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 527-1:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics" in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 527-1:2012.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 527-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 527-1:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 527-1
Third edition
2019-07
Plastics — Determination of tensile
properties —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Détermination des propriétés en traction —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle and methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Method ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Testing machine ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 Test speeds ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.3 Grips .................. .................................................... ...................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.4 Force indicator ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.5 Strain indicator ...................................................................... ............................................................................................ 8

5.1.6 Recording of data .................. .................................................... ....................................................................................10

5.2 Devices for measuring width and thickness of the test specimens ........................................................11

6 Test specimens.....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Preparation of specimens ...........................................................................................................................................................11

6.3 Gauge marks ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4 Checking the test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Anisotropy ...............................................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Number of test specimens .......................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Conditioning ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Test atmosphere .................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Dimensions of test specimen ...................................................................................................................................................13

9.3 Gripping .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.4 Prestresses ...............................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.5 Setting of extensometers .............................................................................................................................................................14

9.6 Test speed .................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.7 Recording of data ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Calculation and expression of results ..........................................................................................................................................15

10.1 Stress ............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2 Strain ............................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2.1 Strains determined with an extensometer .............................................................................................15

10.2.2 Nominal strain ................................................................................................................................................................16

10.3 Tensile modulus ..................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.3.2 Chord slope ........................................................................................................................................................................17

10.3.3 Regression slope ...........................................................................................................................................................17

10.4 Poisson's ratio .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

10.5 Statistical parameters ....................................................................................................................................................................18

10.6 Significant figures ..............................................................................................................................................................................18

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Determination of strain at yield ...............................................................................................................20

Annex B (informative) Extensometer accuracy for the determination of Poisson's ratio .........................23

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)

Annex C (normative) Calibration requirements for the determination of the tensile modulus .........24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 2,

Mechanical properties.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 527-1:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— an error in Figure 1 concerning ε has been removed;

— the inconsistency concerning the accuracy of the elongation used in the calculation of the tensile

modulus between 5.1.5.1, Figure 1 and Annex C has been removed. For gauge lengths L ≤ 50 mm,

the accuracy is set to ±1 µm;
— the normative references (see Clause 2) have been updated;
— minor editorial changes have been applied;
— language has been clarified.
A list of all parts in the ISO 527 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 527-1:2019(E)
Plastics — Determination of tensile properties —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope

1.1 This document specifies the general principles for determining the tensile properties of plastics

and plastic composites under defined conditions. Several different types of test specimen are defined to

suit different types of material which are detailed in subsequent parts of ISO 527.

1.2 The methods are used to investigate the tensile behaviour of the test specimens and for determining

the tensile strength, tensile modulus and other aspects of the tensile stress/strain relationship under the

conditions defined.
1.3 The methods are selectively suitable for use with the following materials:

— rigid and semi-rigid moulding, extrusion and cast thermoplastic materials, including filled and

reinforced compounds in addition to unfilled types; rigid and semi-rigid thermoplastics sheets

and films;

— rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting moulding materials, including filled and reinforced compounds;

rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting sheets, including laminates;

— fibre-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or non-

unidirectional reinforcements, such as mat, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands,

combination and hybrid reinforcement, rovings and milled fibres; sheet made from pre-impregnated

materials (prepregs);
— thermotropic liquid crystal polymers.

The methods are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, for which ISO 1926 is used,

or for sandwich structures containing cellular materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 2602, Statistical interpretation of test results — Estimation of the mean — Confidence interval

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

ISO 9513:2012, Metallic materials — Calibration of extensometer systems used in uniaxial testing

ISO 16012, Plastics — Determination of linear dimensions of test specimens

ISO 23529, Rubber — General procedures for preparing and conditioning test pieces for physical test methods

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
gauge length

initial distance between the gauge marks on the central part of the test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).

Note 2 to entry: The values of the gauge length that are indicated for the specimen types in the different parts of

ISO 527 represent the maximum relevant gauge length.
3.2
thickness

smaller initial dimension of the rectangular cross-section in the central part of a test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.3
width

larger initial dimension of the rectangular cross-section in the central part of a test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.4
cross-section
product of initial width (3.3) and thickness (3.2), A = bh, of a test specimen
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in square millimetres, (mm ).
3.5
test speed
rate of separation of the gripping jaws
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres per minute (mm/min).
3.6
stress

normal force per unit area of the original cross-section (3.4) within the gauge length (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: In order to differentiate from the true stress related to the actual cross-section of the specimen,

this stress is frequently called “engineering stress”.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
3.6.1
stress at yield
stress at the yield strain (3.7.1)
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It may be less than the maximum attainable stress (see Figure 1, curve 2).

3.6.2
strength
stress at the first local maximum observed during a tensile test
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: This may also be the stress at which the specimen yields or breaks (see Figure 1).

3.6.3
stress at x % strain

stress at which the strain, ε, reaches the specified value x expressed as a percentage

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: Stress at x % strain may, for example, be useful if the stress/strain curve does not exhibit a yield

point (see Figure 1, curve 4).
3.6.4
stress at break
stress at which the specimen breaks
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It is the highest value of stress on the stress-strain curve directly prior to the separation of the

specimen, i.e directly prior to the load drop caused by crack initiation.
3.7
strain
increase in length per unit original length of the gauge

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

3.7.1
strain at yield
yield strain
first occurrence in a tensile test of strain increase without a stress increase

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves (2) and (3).

Note 3 to entry: See Annex A for computer-controlled determination of the yield strain.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
3.7.2
strain at break

strain at the last recorded data point before the stress (3.6) is reduced to less than or equal to 10 % of

the strength (3.6.2) if the break occurs prior to yielding

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves (1) and (4).
3.7.3
strain at strength
strain at which the strength (3.6.2) is reached

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

3.8
nominal strain

representation of strain (3.7) calculated from grip displacement and the gripping distance (3.11) by one

of the methods in 10.2.2

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: It may be calculated either based on the grip displacement from the beginning of the test or based

on the increase of grip displacement beyond the strain at yield, if the latter is determined with an extensometer

(preferred for multipurpose test specimens).
3.8.1
nominal strain at break

nominal strain at the last recorded data point before the stress (3.6) is reduced to less than or equal to

10 % of the strength (3.6.2) if the break occurs after yielding

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves (2) and (3).
3.8.2
nominal strain at strength
nominal strain at which the strength (3.6.2) is reached

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves (2), (3) and (4).
3.9
tensile modulus
modulus of elasticity under tension

slope of the stress/strain curve σ(ε) in the interval between the two strains ε = 0,05 % and ε = 0,25 %

1 2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It may be calculated either as the chord modulus or as the slope of a linear least-squares

regression line in this interval (see Figure 1, curve 4).
Note 3 to entry: This definition does not apply to films.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
3.10
Poisson's ratio

negative ratio of the strain change Δε , in one of the two axes normal to the direction of extension,

to the corresponding strain change Δε in the direction of extension, within the linear portion of the

longitudinal versus normal strain curve
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio.

Note 2 to entry: Since the lateral strain change Δε is a negative number and the longitudinal strain change Δε is

n l
positive, the Poissons ratio as defined in 3.10 is a positive number.
3.11
gripping distance
initial length of the part of the specimen between the grips
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.12
rigid plastic

plastic that has a modulus of elasticity in flexure (or, if that is not applicable, in tension) greater than

700 MPa under a given set of conditions
3.13
semi-rigid plastic

plastic that has a modulus of elasticity in flexure (or, if that is not applicable, in tension) between 70 MPa

and 700 MPa under a given set of conditions
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 527-1:2019
ISO 527-1:2019(E)
Key
X strain and/or nominal strain
Y stress

1 Curve (1) represents a brittle material, breaking without yielding at low strains. Curve (4) represents a soft

rubberlike material breaking at larger strains (>50 %).

2, 3 Curves (2) and (3) represent materials that have a yield point with (2) or without (3) stress increase after

yielding. Curves (2) and (3) are curves “stress vs. strain” up to the yield point and “stress vs. nominal strain”

beyond the yield point.

4 Curve (4) may be either stress vs. strain or stress vs. nominal strain depending on equipment used.

Figure 1 — Typical stress/strain curves
4 Principle and methods
4.1 Principle

The test specimen is extended along its major longitudinal axis at a constant test speed until the

specimen fractures or until the stress (load) or the strain (elongation) reaches some predetermined

value. During this procedure, the load sustained by the specimen and the elongation are measured.

4.2 Method

4.2.1 The methods are applied using specimens which may be either moulded to the chosen dimensions

or machined, cut or punched from finished and semi-finished products, such as mouldings, laminates,

films and extruded or cast sheet. The types of test specimen and their preparation are described in the

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
01-september-2018
3ROLPHUQLPDWHULDOL8JRWDYOMDQMHQDWH]QLKODVWQRVWLGHO6SORãQDQDþHOD
,62',6

Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO/DIS 527-

1:2018)
Kunststoffe - Bestimmung der Zugeigenschaften - Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze
(ISO/DIS 527-1:2018)

Plastiques - Détermination des propriétés en traction - Partie 1: Principes généraux

(ISO/DIS 527-1:2018)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 527-1
ICS:
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
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oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 527-1
ISO/TC 61/SC 2 Secretariat: KATS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2018-07-10 2018-10-02
Plastics — Determination of tensile properties —
Part 1:
General principles
Plastiques — Détermination des propriétés en traction —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
ICS: 83.080.01
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 527-1:2018(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2018
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oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
ISO/DIS 527-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
ISO/DIS 527-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle and methods ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Method ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Testing machine ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.2 Test speeds ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.3 Grips .................. .................................................... ...................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.4 Force indicator ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.5 Strain indicator ...................................................................... ............................................................................................ 7

5.1.6 Recording of data .................. .................................................... ....................................................................................... 8

5.2 Devices for measuring width and thickness of the test specimens ........................................................... 9

6 Test specimens........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Preparation of specimens .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Gauge marks .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4 Checking the test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Anisotropy ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11

7 Number of test specimens .......................................................................................................................................................................11

8 Conditioning ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Test atmosphere .................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Dimensions of test specimen ...................................................................................................................................................12

9.3 Gripping .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.4 Prestresses ...............................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.5 Setting of extensometers .............................................................................................................................................................13

9.6 Test speed .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.7 Recording of data ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

10 Calculation and expression of results ..........................................................................................................................................14

10.1 Stress ............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.2 Strain ............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.2.1 Strains determined with an extensometer .............................................................................................14

10.2.2 Nominal strain ................................................................................................................................................................15

10.3 Tensile modulus ..................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.3.2 Chord slope ........................................................................................................................................................................16

10.3.3 Regression slope ...........................................................................................................................................................16

10.4 Poisson's ratio .......................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.5 Statistical parameters ....................................................................................................................................................................17

10.6 Significant figures ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Determination of strain at yield ...............................................................................................................19

Annex B (informative) Extensometer accuracy for the determination of Poisson's ratio .........................22

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Annex C (normative) Calibration requirements for the determination of the tensile modulus .........23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 2,

Mechanical properties.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 527-1:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— An error in Fig 1 concerning ε has been has been removed;

— The inconsistency concerning the accuracy of the elongation used in the calculation of the elastic

modulus between clause 5.1.5.1 and Fig 1 and Annex C was removed. For gage lengths L ≤50 mm

the accuracy is set to ±1 µm.
— Normative references are given without dates;
— Minor editorial changes.
A list of all parts in the ISO 527 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST prEN ISO 527-1:2018
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 527-1:2018(E)
Plastics — Determination of tensile properties —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope

1.1 This part of ISO 527 specifies the general principles for determining the tensile properties of

plastics and plastic composites under defined conditions. Several different types of test specimen are

defined to suit different types of material which are detailed in subsequent parts of ISO 527.

1.2 The methods are used to investigate the tensile behaviour of the test specimens and for determining

the tensile strength, tensile modulus and other aspects of the tensile stress/strain relationship under the

conditions defined.
1.3 The methods are selectively suitable for use with the following materials:

— rigid and semi-rigid (see 3.12 and 3.13, respectively) moulding, extrusion and cast thermoplastic

materials, including filled and reinforced compounds in addition to unfilled types; rigid and semi-

rigid thermoplastics sheets and films;

— rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting moulding materials, including filled and reinforced compounds;

rigid and semi-rigid thermosetting sheets, including laminates;

— fibre-reinforced thermosets and thermoplastic composites incorporating unidirectional or non-

unidirectional reinforcements, such as mat, woven fabrics, woven rovings, chopped strands,

combination and hybrid reinforcement, rovings and milled fibres; sheet made from pre-impregnated

materials (prepregs),
— thermotropic liquid crystal polymers.

The methods are not normally suitable for use with rigid cellular materials, for which ISO 1926 is used,

or for sandwich structures containing cellular materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 291, Plastics — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 2602, Statistical interpretation of test results — Estimation of the mean — Confidence interval

ISO 7500-1, Metallic materials — Calibration and verification of static uniaxial testing machines — Part 1:

Tension/compression testing machines — Calibration and verification of the force-measuring system

ISO 9513, Metallic materials — Calibration of extensometer systems used in uniaxial testing

ISO 16012, Plastics — Determination of linear dimensions of test specimens
ISO 20753, Plastics — Test specimens

ISO 23529, Rubber — General procedures for preparing and conditioning test pieces for physical test methods

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3 Terms a nd definiti ons
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
gauge length

initial distance between the gauge marks on the central part of the test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).

Note 2 to entry: The values of the gauge length that are indicated for the specimen types in the different parts of

ISO 527 represent the relevant maximum gauge length.
3.2
thickness

smaller initial dimension of the rectangular cross-section in the central part of a test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.3
width

larger initial dimension of the rectangular cross-section in the central part of a test specimen

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.4
cross-section
product of initial width and thickness, A = bh, of a test specimen.
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in square millimetres, (mm )
3.5
test speed
rate of separation of the gripping jaws
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres per minute (mm/min).
3.6
stress
normal force per unit area of the original cross-section within the gauge length
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa)

Note 2 to entry: In order to differentiate from the true stress related to the actual cross-section of the specimen,

this stress is frequently called "engineering stress"
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3.6.1
stress at yield
stress at the yield strain
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It may be less than the maximum attainable stress (see Figure 1, curves b and c)

3.6.2
strength
stress at the first local maximum observed during a tensile test
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: This may also be the stress at which the specimen yields or breaks (see Figure 1).

3.6.3
stress at x % strain

stress at which the strain reaches the specified value x expressed as a percentage

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: Stress at x % strain may, for example, be useful if the stress/strain curve does not exhibit a yield

point (see Figure 1, curve d).
3.6.4
stress at break
stress at which the specimen breaks
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It is the highest value of stress on the stress-strain curve directly prior to the separation of the

specimen, i.e directly prior to the load drop caused by crack initiation.
3.7
strain
increase in length per unit original length of the gauge.

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

3.7.1
strain at yield
yield strain

the first occurrence in a tensile test of strain increase without a stress increase

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves b and c.

Note 3 to entry: See Annex A (informative) for computer-controlled determination of the yield strain.

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3.7.2
strain at break

strain at the last recorded data point before the stress is reduced to less than or equal to 10 % of the

strength if the break occurs prior to yielding

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves a and d.
3.7.3
strain at strength
strain at which the strength is reached

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

3.8
nominal strain
crosshead displacement divided by the gripping distance

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: It is used for strains beyond the yield strain (see 3.7.1) or where no extensometers are used.

Note 3 to entry: It may be calculated based on the crosshead displacement from the beginning of the test, or

based on the increment of crosshead displacement beyond the strain at yield, if the latter is determined with an

extensometer (preferred for multipurpose test specimens).
3.8.1
nominal strain at break

nominal strain at the last recorded data point before the stress is reduced to less than or equal to 10 %

of the strength if the break occurs after yielding

Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio, or as a percentage (%).

Note 2 to entry: See Figure 1, curves b and c.
3.9
modulus

slope of the stress/strain curve σ(ε) in the strain interval between ε = 0,05 % and ε = 0,25 %

1 2
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).

Note 2 to entry: It may be calculated either as the chord modulus or as the slope of a linear least-squares

regression line in this interval (see Figure 1, curve d).
Note 3 to entry: This definition does not apply to films.
3.10
Poisson's ratio

negative ratio of the strain decrease Δε , in one of the two axes normal to the direction of extension,

to the corresponding strain increase Δε in the direction of extension, within the linear portion of the

longitudinal versus normal strain curve
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio.
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3.11
gripping distance
initial length of the part of the specimen between the grips
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm).
3.12
rigid plastic

plastic that has a modulus of elasticity in flexure (or, if that is not applicable, in tension) greater than

700 MPa under a given set of conditions
3.13
semi-rigid plastic

plastic that has a modulus of elasticity in flexure (or, if that is not applicable, in tension) between 70 MPa

and 700 MPa under a given set of conditions
Figure 1 — Typical stress/strain curves

Note 1 to entry: Curve (a) represents a brittle material, breaking without yielding at low strains. Curve (d)

represents a soft rubberlike material breaking at larger strains (>50 %).
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4 Principle and methods
4.1 Principle

The test specimen is extended along its major longitudinal axis at a constant speed until the specimen

fractures or until the stress (load) or the strain (elongation) reaches some predetermined value. During

this procedure, the load sustained by the specimen and the elongation are measured.

4.2 Method

4.1 The methods are applied using specimens which may be either moulded to the chosen dimensions

or machined, cut or punched from finished and semi-finished products, such as mouldings, laminates,

films and extruded or cast sheet. The types of test specimen and their preparation are described in the

relevant part of ISO 527 typical for the material. In some cases, a multipurpose test specimen may be

used. Multipurpose and miniaturized test specimens are described in ISO 20753.

4.2 The methods specify preferred dimensions for the test specimens. Tests which are carried out

on specimens of different dimensions, or on specimens which are prepared under different conditions,

may produce results which are not comparable. Other factors, such as the speed of testing and the

conditioning of the specimens, can also influence the results. Consequently, when comparative data are

required, these factors shall be carefully controlled and recorded.
5 Apparatus
5.1 Testing machine
5.1.1 General

The machine shall comply with ISO 7500-1 and ISO 9513, and meet the specifications given in 5.1.2 to

5.1.6, as follows.
5.1.2 Test speeds

The tensile-testing machine shall be capable of maintaining the test speeds as specified in Table 1.

5.1.3 Grips

Grips for holding the test specimen shall be attached to the machine so that the major axis of the test

specimen coincides with the direction of extension through the centre line of the grip assembly. The

test specimen shall be held such that slip relative to the gripping jaws is prevented. The gripping system

shall not cause premature fracture at the jaws or squashing of the specimen in the grips.

For the determination of the tensile modulus, it is essential that the strain rate is constant and does not

change, for example, due to motion in the grips. This is important especially if wedge action grips are used.

NOTE For the prestress, which might be necessary to obtain correct alignment (see 9.3) and specimen

seating and to avoid a toe region at the start of the stress/strain diagram, see 9.4.

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Table 1 — Recommended test speeds
Test speed Tolerance
v %
mm/min
0,125 ±20
0,25
0,5
20 ±10
100
200
300
500
5.1.4 Force indicator
The force measurement system shall comply with class 1 as defined in ISO 7500-1.
5.1.5 Strain indicator
5.1.5.1 Extensometers

Contact extensometers shall comply with ISO 9513, class 1. The accuracy of this class shall be attained

in the strain range over which measurements are being made. Non-contact extensometers may also be

used, provided they meet the same accuracy requirements.

The extensometer shall be capable of determining the change in the gauge length of the test specimen at

any time during the test. It is desirable, but not essential, that the instrument should record this change

automatically. The instrument shall be essentially free of inertia lag at the specified speed of testing.

For the determination of elastic modulus, the instrument shall be capable of measuring the change in

the gauge length of the specimen with an accuracy of 1 % of the relevant value or better for all gauge

lengths of 50 mm or higher, corresponding to a requirement of absolute accuracy of ±1 μm for a gauge

length of 50 mm and to ±1,5 μm, in case a gauge length of 75 mm is used.

For smaller gauge lengths between 20 and 50 mm an absolute accuracy of ±1 μm is sufficient (see

Figure 2 and Annex C.)

NOTE Depending on the gauge length used, the accuracy requirement of 1 % translates to different

absolute accuracies for the determination of the elongation within the gauge length. Modulus measurements on

miniaturized specimens are for different dimensional and material related reasons less accurate. The constant

absolute accuracy for the measurement of change in gage length leads to relative accuracies of 2 % for gauge

length 25 mm and of 2.5 % for gage length 20 mm (see Figure 2).

Commonly used optical extensometers record the deformation taken at one broad test-specimen

surface: In the case of such a single-sided strain-testing method, ensure that low strains are not

falsified by bendin
...

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