General methods for assessing the recyclability and recoverability of energy related products

This European standard (EN) provides a general methodology for:
- Assessing the recyclability of energy related products
- Assessing the recoverability of energy related products
- Assessing the ability to access or remove certain components or assemblies from energy related products to facilitate their potential for recycling or other recovery operations.
- Assessing the recyclability of critical raw materials from energy related products.
This EN will elaborate on recyclability and recoverability in a horizontal, cross-product way. However, a correct assessment can only be done in a product-specific way, taking into account specific parameters of a specific product group. This standard will define a series of parameters which may be considered to calculate product specific recycling and recoverability rates.

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Rezyklierbarkeit und Wiederverwertbarkeit energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Dieses Dokument bietet eine allgemeines Verfahrenfür:
 die Bewertung der Recyclingfähigkeit von energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkten;
 die Bewertung der Wiederverwertbarkeit von energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkten;
 die Bewertung der Fähigkeit, auf gewisse Komponenten, Baugruppen, Materialien oder Substanzen aus Produkten zuzugreifen oder diese zu entnehmen, um ihre Entnahme am Ende der Nutzungsdauer für Behandlung, Recycling- und sonstige Wiederverwertungsverfahren zu vereinfachen;
 die Bewertung der Recyclingfähigkeit kritischer Rohstoffe aus energieverbrauchsrelevanten Produkten.
Dieses Dokument definiert allgemeine Verfahren und Parameter, die für die Entwicklung von produkt-spezifischen Normen zur Berechnung produktspezifischer Recyclingfähigkeits- und Wiederverwert-barkeitsraten gelten. Dieses Dokument kann nicht direkt auf eine Produktgruppe angewendet werden, da eine korrekte Bewertung nur produktspezifisch erfolgen kann. Dieses Dokument definiert eine Reihe von Parametern, die für die Berechnung von produktspezifischen Recyclingfähigkeits- und Wiederverwertbar-keitsindizes berücksichtigt werden können.

Méthodes générales pour l’évaluation de la recyclabilité et de la valorisabilité des produits liés à l’énergie

Le présent document fournit une méthodologie générale pour :
 l’évaluation de la recyclabilité des produits liés à l’énergie ;
 l’évaluation de la valorisabilité des produits liés à l’énergie ;
 l’évaluation de la capacité à accéder à ou à extraire certains composants, assemblages, matériaux ou substances des produits afin de faciliter leur extraction en fin de vie pour un traitement, un recyclage et d’autres opérations de valorisation simplifiés ;
 l’évaluation de la recyclabilité des matières premières critiques provenant de produits liés à l’énergie.
Le présent document définit des méthodes et paramètres génériques applicables pour le développement de normes spécifiques à un produit afin de calculer les taux de recyclabilité et de valorisabilité spécifiques à un produit. Le présent document ne peut pas être directement appliqué à un groupe de produits, car une évaluation correcte ne peut être effectuée que d'une manière spécifique au produit. Le présent document définit une série de paramètres pouvant être pris en considération pour calculer des indices de recyclabilité et de valorisabilité spécifiques à un produit.

Splošne metode za ocenjevanje možnosti za recikliranje in predelavo proizvodov, povezanih z energijo

Ta evropski standard (EN) podaja splošno metodologijo za:
– ocenjevanje možnosti za recikliranje proizvodov, povezanih z energijo;
– ocenjevanje možnosti za predelavo proizvodov, povezanih z energijo;
– ocenjevanje možnosti za dostop ali odstranjevanje določenih komponent ali sestavov iz proizvodov, povezanih z energijo, kar poveča možnosti za njihovo recikliranje ali ostale postopke predelave;
– ocenjevanje možnosti za recikliranje kritičnih surovin iz proizvodov, povezanih z energijo.
Ta evropski standard dopolnjuje možnosti za recikliranje ter predelavo vzporedno in navzkrižno med proizvodi. Vendar pa je točna ocena mogoča le na način za posamezne proizvode ob upoštevanju določenih parametrov posamezne skupine proizvodov. Ta standard določa vrsto parametrov, ki jih lahko upoštevate pri izračunu stopnje možnosti za recikliranje in predelavo, ki je specifična za določen proizvod.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Nov-2018
Publication Date
07-Jan-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Dec-2019
Due Date
10-Feb-2020
Completion Date
08-Jan-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 45555:2020
01-februar-2020
Splošne metode za ocenjevanje možnosti za recikliranje in predelavo proizvodov,
povezanih z energijo

General methods for assessing the recyclability and recoverability of energy related

products

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Rezyklierbarkeit und Wiederverwertbarkeit

energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Méthodes générales pour l’évaluation de la recyclabilité et de la valorisabilité des

produits liés à l’énergie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 45555:2019
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
SIST EN 45555:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 45555:2020
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 45555
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
November 2019
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General methods for assessing the recyclability and
recoverability of energy-related products

Méthodes générales pour l'évaluation de la Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der

recyclabilité et de la récupérabilité des produits liés à Recyclingfähigkeit und Verwertbarkeit

l'énergie energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 October 2019.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 45555:2019 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Overview and guidance ................................................................................................................................. 7

5 EoL treatment scenario ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 General considerations ................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Specification of the reference EoL treatment scenario .................................................................. 10

5.3 Representativeness of the reference EoL treatment scenario..................................................... 12

5.4 Data sources of the reference EoL treatment scenario .................................................................. 12

6 Design related criteria affecting recyclability and recoverability ............................................. 13

6.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 CRM related design characteristics ....................................................................................................... 14

6.2.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................................. 14

6.2.2 Assessment method ..................................................................................................................................... 14

7 Assessment of the recyclability and recoverability of an ErP ...................................................... 14

7.1 General considerations for quantifying recyclability and recoverability ............................... 14

7.2 Material clustering and unspecified materials ................................................................................. 16

7.3 Detailed assessment of recyclability factor and recoverability factor ..................................... 16

7.4 Simplified assessment of recyclability factor and recoverability factor.................................. 17

8 Documenting the assessment of the recyclability and recoverability ...................................... 17

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

8.2 Elements of the assessment ...................................................................................................................... 17

8.3 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 18

Annex A (informative) Description of the workflow for the users of this document ....................... 19

Annex B (informative) Example of an EoL treatment scenario flow diagram for one material ... 21

Annex C (informative) Relationship with environmental impacts of recycling and recovery ...... 24

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 45555:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 10 “Energy-

related products - Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 – 45559,

have been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are

intended to potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Directive 2009/125/EC concerning

energy-related products (ErP).

Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

aspects:
a) Extending product lifetime;

b) Ability to reuse components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life;

c) Use of reused components/recycled materials in products.

These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product-specific, or

product-group standards e.g. developed by product technical committees.

This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, or

product or product-group standards.

Attention is drawn to safety and other legislations relevant to ErP. Their purpose is to ensure that all

products intended for or likely to be used by consumers and other users under normal or reasonable

foreseeable conditions are safe.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
Introduction

To close the loop in a circular economy, amongst other measures, an efficient handling of waste is

paramount. Recovering materials and energy can reduce environmental impacts over the product

lifecycle, including reduced extraction of natural resources and associated emissions of primary

material production. To determine the recycling potential of an energy-related product (ErP) in terms

of how easy it is to recycle/recover materials from the product or to what degree a product can undergo

recycling/recovery, the concepts of recyclability and recoverability are introduced.

While recycling of ErPs aims at closing the circular economy loop, trade-offs might arise between

different material efficiency related topics. For instance mass of an ErP, durability, reparability,

reusability and energy efficiency, need to be balanced in order to improve the environmental benefit.

See also ISO Guide 64 [12]. Further explanation on the relationship with environmental impacts of

recycling and recovery, including environmental benefits, are displayed in the informative Annex C.

NOTE The Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC [9] provides the concept of waste hierarchy, which ranks

the waste management practices from highest to lowest priority as follows: prevention, preparing for reuse,

recycling, recovery and disposal.

Once an ErP has reached its end-of-life (EoL) and has become waste, the ErP can be either prepared for

reuse, recycled/recovered. This document elaborates on the product characteristics which are relevant

for recyclability and recoverability of an entire ErP. The focus is therefore on the

recyclability/recoverability of the product itself rather than the recycling or recovery processes. The

general method presented in this document takes into account the availability and efficiency of state-of-

the-art recycling and recovery processes to determine the recyclability/recoverability rate of an ErP.

Based on the reference EoL treatment scenario, it is assumed that the assessment of the

recyclability/recoverability of an ErP as a whole may be valid for a certain period of time in a given

geographical area.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
1 Scope
This document establishes general principles for:
— Assessing the recyclability of energy-related products;
— Assessing the recoverability of energy-related products.
This document also considers:

— The ability to access or remove certain components, assemblies, materials or substances from

products to facilitate their extraction at the end-of-life for ease of treatment, recycling and other

recovery operations;
— The recyclability of critical raw materials (CRMs).

This document defines parameters which are applicable for the development of product or product-

group standards in order to calculate recyclability/recoverability rates. This document serves as a

method for writing product or product-group standards, rather than being directly applied. Additional

information and requirements not provided in this document will be necessary for product or product-

group standards.

This document is not applicable to generate publicly available product information and compare

products in absence of product standards based on this document.

Although this document can be used for a product or product-group, for the sake of a better readability

only “product” is used throughout the rest of the document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45558, General method to declare the use of critical raw materials in energy-related products

EN 45559:2019, Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-

related products
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

NOTE See FprCLC/TR 45550 for additional definitions related to material efficiency of ErP.

3.1.1
EoL
end-of-life

life cycle stage of a product starting when it is removed from its intended use stage

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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)

Note 1 to entry: Within this standard, removal from its intended use phase includes when it has been discarded

as waste.

[SOURCE: IEV 904-01-17, modified with the addition of the Note 1 to entry and alignment of wording

M/543]
3.1.2
EoL treatment
end-of-life treatment
operation of any kind by which a product is recovered or disposed of
3.1.3
recovery

operation of any kind, the principal result of which is waste serving a useful purpose by replacing other

materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a particular function, or waste being prepared

to fulfil that function, in the plant or in the wider economy

Note 1 to entry: Annex II of the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) sets out a non-exhaustive list of

recovery operations.

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified by moving the last sentence of definition to NOTE 1 to entry]

3.1.4
material recovery

recovery operation of any kind, other than energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are

to be used as fuels or other means to generate energy

Note 1 to entry: Material recovery includes, inter alia, preparing for reuse, recycling and backfilling.

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified by moving the last sentence of definition to Note 1 to entry]

3.1.5
energy recovery

production of useful energy through direct and controlled combustion or other processing of waste

[SOURCE: IEV 904-04-03, modified by deletion of Note 1 to entry]
3.1.6
recycling

recovery operation of any kind, by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or

substances whether for the original or other purposes excluding energy recovery

Note 1 to entry: Recycling includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery

and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations.

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified by moving the last sentence of definition to NOTE 1 to entry]

3.1.7
waste

substance or object of any kind, which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
3.1.8
disposal

operation of any kind, which is not recovery even where the operation has as a secondary consequence

the reclamation of substances or energy

Note 1 to entry: Annex I of the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) sets out a non-exhaustive list of

disposal operations.

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified by deleting the last sentence of definition and adding

NOTE 1 to entry]
3.1.9
part
hardware, firmware or software constituent of a product

Note 1 to entry: Firmware and software are not relevant for the purpose of this document.

[SOURCE: EN 45554:- definition 3.2]
3.1.10
backfilling

recovery operation of any kind where suitable non-hazardous waste is used for purposes of reclamation

in excavated areas or for engineering purposes in landscaping

Note 1 to entry: Waste used for backfilling must substitute non-waste materials, be suitable for the

aforementioned purposes, and be limited to the amount strictly necessary to achieve those purposes.

[SOURCE: Directive (EU) 2018/851, modified by moving the last sentence of definition to NOTE 1 to

entry]
3.2 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations have been used in this document:
CRM critical raw material
EoL end-of-life
ErP energy-related products
4 Overview and guidance

For the assessment of the recyclability/recoverability of an ErP, it shall be assumed that the entire ErP

undergoes the respective reference EoL treatment scenario. It shall be assumed that no preparing for

reuse takes place in this assessment. The users of this document shall select one reference EoL

treatment scenarios. Comparison of recyclability/recoverability rates of different products of the same

type, shall only be carried out using the same reference EoL treatment scenario.

The ability of an ErP to be recycled and recovered depends upon the following factors:

— the design characteristics of the product such as its structure, material composition, size, mass;

Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: FprEN 45554
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)

— the techniques, combination or sequence of techniques used to recycle or recover a given waste

stream.

NOTE 1 The design characteristics of the product can facilitate selected recycling and recovery processes. This

could be done for example by marking certain parts, which are separated during the recovery process, in order to

make them easier to identify for removal. Easy removal of certain parts does not necessarily increase

recoverability if those parts are not removed in the reference EoL treatment scenario considered.

The recyclability/recoverability assessment of an ErP shall be based on the reference EoL treatment

scenario defined according to Clause 5 on a product basis.
The reference EoL treatment scenario shall be based on 5.3, taking into account:
— Product-related representativeness;
— Technological representativeness;
— Temporal representativeness;
— Geographical representativeness.

Based on technical constraints and legal requirements of the specified treatment, criteria at product

level shall be defined in order to assess the compatibility of the product with the specified treatment.

Clause 6 provides guidelines for selecting criteria that may be considered for a qualitative assessment

and that shall be considered in order to define recyclability/recoverability rates (see Clause 7).

See a detailed description of the workflow for the users of this document in Annex A.

NOTE 2 Criteria could, for example, include the ability to remove parts from a product due to treatment related

reasons or legal requirements.

EXAMPLE 1 Due to technical constraints of certain recycling methods, all the loaded plastic (whether

brominated flame retardants are present or not) have to be sorted in order to remove plastic containing

brominated flame retardants.

EXAMPLE 2 Due to legal requirements it has to be possible to remove toner cartridges, liquid, paste, and colour

toner from a product containing them as an identifiable stream or an identifiable part of a stream during the

treatment step.

Clause 8 describes requirements on the communication of the recyclability/recoverability assessment

result.

Figure 1 describes, in the form of a flow chart, the logic of this document and links between the different

parts.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
Figure 1 — Flowchart on assessing the recyclability/recoverability of an ErP
5 EoL treatment scenario
5.1 General considerations

An EoL treatment scenario is a description of the combination and sequence of processes and steps

required for the EoL treatment of a product. The assessment of a product's recyclability/recoverability

shall be based on only one representative EoL treatment scenario.

NOTE 1 The same reference EoL treatment scenario is applicable for the assessment of a product or its

constituent parts or materials.

Losses outside of the reference EoL treatment scenario, e.g. collection, storage, transport, preparing for

reuse or scavenging are not considered.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)

When specifying the reference EoL treatment scenario, the following aspects shall be considered:

— applicable regulations;

— relevant industry practices and standards allowing efficient recycling and recovery;

— health, safety and environmental concerns;
— specific structure and material content of the product in scope.
The reference EoL treatment scenario can include operations such as:

— Mitigation of hazards and removal of parts for selective treatment, either when this is required (e.g.

regulations applicable to the recycling facility), or to allow a higher efficiency of subsequent EoL

treatment;

— Material recovery including material separation and recycling, which can be achieved through

several techniques, such as mechanical, chemical or thermal;
— Energy recovery;
— Disposal.

The users of this document shall describe where the reference EoL treatment scenario ends:

— for recycling, it is where waste material has been reprocessed into products, materials or

substances whether for the original or other purposes. This is the same point from which the

recycled material content can be determined;
— for recovery, it is where materials/energy are recovered.

NOTE 2 In the recyclability assessment any recovered material that does not become recycled content in new

materials, parts or products, does not count as recycled.
5.2 Specification of the reference EoL treatment scenario

The reference EoL treatment scenario shall be established. The recyclability/recoverability parameters

for parts/materials shall be derived from the established reference EoL treatment scenario. These

parameters are used in the assessment of the ErP (see 7.1).

For clarification purposes, a flow diagram of the selected reference EoL treatment scenario shall be

developed. A simplified example is shown in Figure 2. The flow diagram shall include all relevant

treatment steps of the reference EoL treatment scenario in sequential order and specify from the

starting point (waste product) all the outputs of each treatment step and their destination (e.g. material

recovered, landfilled or input to another process).

The material output shall indicate, as far as possible, the overall efficiency of the material recovery,

taking into account the losses at each treatment step. The treatment steps shall be considered as

described in the example in Annex B.
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
Key
EoL treatment step material flow can include additional treatment steps
material output material flow
final output

Figure 2 — Simplified treatment steps of an example reference EoL treatment scenario

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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)
The reference EoL treatment scenario shall be used to specify criteria affecting

recyclability/recoverability according to the guidance in Clause 6, and to calculate the parameters

required in the formulas in Clause 7. The efficiency values of treatment steps shall be used in the

calculation of the recyclability/recoverability factors of parts/materials (R and R ), and the

cyc,k cov,k
recyclability rate (R ) and recoverability rate (R ) of an ErP.
cyc cov
5.3 Representativeness of the reference EoL treatment scenario

EoL treatment depends on the technology used. This technology also differs by location, by the time the

assessment is done and by the product under assessment. To get comparable results and avoid an

unrealistic EoL treatment scenario, the representativeness of the reference EoL treatment scenario

shall be considered and described for each of the criteria in Table 1.

Table 1 — Representativeness criteria to determine the reference EoL treatment scenario

Criteria Guidelines

Product-related The reference EoL treatment scenario shall be appropriate for the product

representativeness studied, in particular when treatment technologies are product specific due to

applicable regulations, industry practices, collection flows (e.g. per individual

or collective producers’ responsibility schemes) and health, safety and
environmental aspects.

Technological State-of-the-art treatment technologies shall form the basis of the reference

representativeness EoL treatment scenario for each treatment step. Treatment processes under

development can be considered and documented.
NOTE The reference EoL treatment scenario will include state-of-the-art
technologies, meaning that the latest, most up-to-date methods for each
technology are included, provided that they are already used by the industry,
and economically viable in a current business setting.

Temporal The reference EoL treatment scenario shall be defined to be influenced as little

representativeness as possible by short-term fluctuations of the waste composition and recycling

strategies that do not reflect fundamental changes in the
recyclability/recoverability of the product.

Geographical Data that is representative for the relevant geographical area (e.g. countries of

representativeness the EU) shall be used. The use of data generated by selecting operators

representing the best available technology out of a pool of operators
complying with the requirements of European treatment standards (e.g. in the
case of WEEE: EN 50625 series) may be considered as representative for
Europe.

For the recyclability/recoverability assessment, a reference EoL treatment scenario shall be established

for each product. A combination of different options resulting from the criteria and guidelines listed

above can result in an average scenario.
5.4 Data sources of the reference EoL treatment scenario

The most recent and appropriate data sources shall be used. Lack of data can hamper assessment of

recyclability/recoverability according to Clause 7.

Data from public sources (e.g. authority, industry, academia, etc.) may be used as input to determine the

reference EoL treatment scenario for a specified product.

NOTE See JRC report “Feasibility study for setting-up reference values to support the calculation of

recyclability/recoverability rates of electr(on)ic products” [15].
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SIST EN 45555:2020
EN 45555:2019 (E)

The reference EoL treatment scenario, including material-specific efficiencies of the treatment steps,

shall established based on data from applicable EoL treatments and be complemented by information

from manufacturers and recyclers [13].
EXAMPLE Sources of data to define the reference EoL treatment scenario include:

— Data on recovery and recycling rates of different waste categories, stated with reporting tools

commonly used within the corresponding industry (e.g.: WF-RepTool for WEEE, https://www.wf-

reptool.org/);

— Treatment standards applicable to the category of product (e.g.: EN 50625 standards on WEEE

management);
— Case studies described in the scientific literature;

— Databases of reference values, if developed, provided by national or European authorities;

— Parameters produced by treatment process modelling with simulation tools.
6 Design related criteria affecting recyclability and recoverability
6.1 General considerations

The following guidelines shall be considered by the users of this document for establishing criteria at

product level in relationship to the reference EoL treatment scenario, taking into account the specific

characteristics of the assessed product.
Depollution and selective treatment of certain parts/materials at EoL are prereq
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 45555:2018
01-november-2018
Splošne metode za ocenjevanje možnosti za recikliranje proizvodov, vezanih na
energijo

General methods for assessing the recyclability and recoverability of energy related

products

Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der Rezyklierbarkeit und Wiederverwertbarkeit

energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

Méthodes générales pour l’évaluation de la recyclabilité et de la valorisabilité des

produits liés à l’énergie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 45555
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
oSIST prEN 45555:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 45555:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 45555
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2018
ICS 13.020.20
English version
General methods for assessing the recyclability and
recoverability of energy related products
Allgemeines Verfahren zur Bewertung der
Rezyklierbarkeit und Wiederverwertbarkeit
energieverbrauchsrelevanter Produkte

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 10.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 5

4 General assessment procedure........................................................................................................ 8

5 End-of-life treatment scenario ....................................................................................................... 10

6 Design related criteria affecting recyclability and recoverability .................................... 13

7 Assessment of the recyclability and recoverability of an energy-related product ..... 14

8 Assessment of the recyclability and recoverability of critical raw materials ............... 20

9 Reporting recyclability and recoverability aspects ............................................................... 20

Annex A (informative) Relationship with environmental impacts of recycling and

recovery.................................................................................................................................................. 22

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 23

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European foreword

This document (prEN 45555:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC 10

"Energy-related products – Material Efficiency Aspects for Ecodesign", the secretariat of which is held by

NEC.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

The dual logo CEN-CENELEC standardization deliverables, in the numerical range of 45550 – 45559, have

been developed under standardization request M/543 of the European Commission and are intended to

potentially apply to any product within the scope of the Directive 2009/125/EC concerning energy-

related products (ErP).

Topics covered in the above standardization request are linked to the following material efficiency

aspects:
a) Extending product lifetime

b) Ability to re-use components or recycle materials from products at end-of-life

c) Use of re-used components and/or recycled materials in products

These standards are general in nature and describe or define fundamental principles, concepts,

terminology or technical characteristics. They can be cited together with other product or product-group

standards, e.g. developed by product technical committees.

This document is intended to be used by technical committees when producing horizontal, generic, and

product-specific or product-group standards.
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Introduction

To close the loop to a circular economy, amongst other measures, an efficient handling of waste is

paramount. Recovering materials and energy can reduce environmental impacts over the lifecycle,

including reduced extraction of natural resources and associated emissions of primary material

production. To judge the recycling potential of an ErP in terms of how easy it is to recycle/recover

materials from the product or to what degree a product can undergo recycling/recovery, the concepts of

recyclability and recoverability are introduced/used.

NOTE The waste hierarchy, introduced in Directive 2008/98/EC, ranks different waste management principles

(from highest to lowest priority): prevention, preparing for re-use, recycling, recovery, disposal.

Once an ErP has reached its end-of-life (EoL) and has become waste, the ErP can be either prepared for

re-use, recycled and/or recovered. This document elaborates on the product characteristics which are

relevant for recyclability and recoverability of a whole ErP. Focus is therefore on abilities of the product

itself and not on recycling and recovery processes. However, the availability and efficiencies of state-of-

the art recycling and recovery processes are taken into account to determine the

recyclability/recoverability rate of an ErP. The outcome of the recyclability and recoverability

assessment may be affected by for instance technological changes over time or from the location, where

the actual end-of-life process is operated. For the assessment of the recyclability/recoverability of an ErP,

it is assumed that the whole ErP undergoes the respective EoL treatment process. It is assumed that no

re-use takes place in this assessment. In order to be able to compare recyclability and recoverability rates

of different products, one EoL treatment scenario needs to be used. Selection of the EoL treatment

scenarios should be done by the user of this document.

This document describes how an end-of-life (EoL) treatment scenario has to be chosen (Clause 5) by the

user of this document. Based on this scenario, the recyclability/recoverability rate of an ErP can be

assessed. While Clause 6 describes design related considerations to set criteria for the recyclability and

recoverability assessment of an ErP, subclause 7.1 presents the general considerations for quantifying

the recyclability/recoverability. A detailed recyclability/recoverability assessment (see subclause 7.2)

and a simplified recyclability/recoverability assessment (see subclause 7.3) are described in Clause 7.

Further considerations on the assessment of the recyclability and recoverability of critical raw materials

are given in Clause 8. Provisions on the communication of the result of the recyclability/recoverability

assessment are shown in Clause 9.
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1 Scope
This document provides a general methodology for:
• Assessing the recyclability of energy-related products;
• Assessing the recoverability of energy-related products;

• Assessing the ability to access or remove certain components, assemblies, materials or substances

from products to facilitate their extraction at the end-of-life for ease of treatment, recycling and other

recovery operations;

• Assessing the recyclability of critical raw materials from energy-related products.

This document defines generic methods and parameters which are applicable for the development of

product-specific standards in order to calculate product-specific recyclability and recoverability rates.

This document cannot be applied directly to a product-group because a correct assessment can only be

done in a product-specific way. This document defines a series of parameters which may be considered

to calculate product-specific recyclability and recoverability indices.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 45558:—, General method to declare the use of critical raw materials in energy-related products

EN 45559:— , Methods for providing information relating to material efficiency aspects of energy-related

products
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
NOTE See CLC/prTR 455501 for additional definitions.
3.1
end-of-life treatment

operation of any kind by which an end-of-life product that has become waste is recovered or disposed

3.2
end-of-life treatment scenario

description of a process flow resulting from end-of-life treatment including the data needed to calculate

recyclability and recoverability rates
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: prEN 45558
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: prEN 45559
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3.3
energy recovery

production of useful energy through direct and controlled combustion or other processing of waste

[SOURCE: IEC 62635:2012, modified Note 1 to entry deleted]
3.4
material recovery

recovery operation of any kind, excluding energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials which are

to be used as fuel
[SOURCE: EN 50625-1:2014, 3.23, modified formatting and sentence structure]
3.5
recovery

operation of any kind, the principal result of which is waste serving a useful purpose by replacing other

materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a particular function, or waste being prepared

to fulfil that function, in the plant or in the wider economy

Note 1 to entry: Recovery operations include material recovery and energy recovery

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified: addition of Note 1 to entry]
3.6
recoverability
ability of a waste product to be recovered
[SOURCE: IEC 62635:2012, modified “based on actual practices” deleted]
3.7
recoverability rate

ratio of the sum of recoverable products, product parts, materials mass to total waste product mass

reprocessed
[SOURCE: IEC 62635:2012, modified “the sum of” added]
3.8
recycling

recovery operation of any kind, by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or

substances whether for the original or other purposes

Note 2 to entry: It includes organic recycling but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into

materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified: moved second sentence of definition to Note 1 to entry]

3.9
recyclability
ability of a product to be recycled at end-of-life

[SOURCE: IEC 62635:2012, modified “based on actual practices” replaced by “at end-of-life”]

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3.10
waste

substance or object of any kind, which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
3.11
hazardous waste

waste which displays one or more of the hazardous properties listed in Annex III of Directive 2008/98/EC

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
3.12
removal

manual, mechanical, chemical or metallurgic handling with the result that hazardous substances,

mixtures and components are contained in an identifiable stream or are an identifiable part of a stream

within the treatment process

Note 3 to entry: A substance, mixture or component is identifiable if it can be monitored to verify environmentally

safe treatment.

[SOURCE: Directive 2012/19/EU, modified: moved second sentence of definition to Note 1 to entry]

3.13
disposal

operation of any kind, which is not recovery even where the operation has as a secondary consequence

the reclamation of substances or energy
[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, modified: second sentence deleted]
3.14
collection

gathering of waste, including the preliminary sorting and preliminary storage of waste for the purposes

of transport to a treatment facility
[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC]
3.15
part
hardware or software constituent of a product
[SOURCE: EN 45554 definition 3.2]
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: prEN 45554
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4 General assessment procedure
Recyclability and recoverability of a product is a combination of:

• the design characteristics of the product such as the structure, material composition, size, weight;

• the techniques, combination or sequence of techniques used to recycle or recover a given waste

stream.

The recyclability and recoverability assessment of an ErP shall thus be based on an end-of-life treatment

scenario defined according to Clause 5 on a product or product-group specific basis.

While recycling of ErPs aims at closing the circular economy loop, trade-offs might arise between

different material efficiency related topics. In general, different material efficiency aspects like for

instance weight, durability, reparability, re-usability, need to be balanced in order to optimize the

environmental benefit (balancing between different material efficiency choices is quoted in: DIN SPEC 59,

CEN Guide 4, ISO Guide 64). Further explanation on the relationship with environmental impacts of

recycling and recovery, including environmental benefits, are displayed in the informative Annex A.

Based on product structure and material content, a generic end-of-life treatment scenario for the product-

group shall be specified. The end-of-life treatment scenario shall consider state of the art treatment and

recycling methods. Based on input limitations of the specified treatment and recycling methods, criteria

at product or product-group level shall be defined in order to assess a products compatibility with the

specified treatment and recycling methods. Criteria could for example include the ability to remove parts

from a product due to the treatment relating reasons or due to the legal requirement. Against these

criteria, recyclability/recoverability of individual products can be assessed. Figure 1 describes this

process as well as the connection of the steps and different parts of this document.

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Figure 1 — Flowchart on assessing the recyclability/recoverability of an ErP
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5 End-of-life treatment scenario
5.1 General considerations

An end-of-life treatment scenario is a description of the combination and sequence of processes and steps

required for the EoL treatment of a product.

End-of-life treatment needs to comply with applicable regulations and in general observes relevant

industry practices and standards, allowing efficient recycling and recovery, while at the same time

addressing health, safety and environmental concerns.
The treatment operations may include:

• operations to mitigate hazards and remove parts for selective treatment, when it’s required (e.g.

regulations applicable to the recycling facility), or allows a better efficiency of the end-of-life

treatment;

• Recovery operations including material separation, which can be achieved through several

techniques, such as mechanical, chemical or thermal separation material ;

• Recycling operations which are recovery operations whereby waste materials are actually

reprocessed into products, materials or substances;

• Energy recovery operations and operations for treating waste for incineration or landfill;

• Disposal operations and operations for treating waste for landfill.

The end-of-life treatment scenario should be assessed up to the point where waste material has been

reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes and as

from which the recycled content can be calculated.
5.2 Definition of the end-of-life treatment scenario

The reference end-of-life treatment scenario shall be established in product-group specific standards.

For full transparency, a flow diagram shall be developed to illustrate the materials’ flows through the EoL

treatment chain. The diagram shall include all the steps of the EoL treatments in sequential order and

specify from the starting point (waste product) all the outputs of each step and its destination (e.g.

material recovered, landfilled or input to another process). To the extent possible the material output

shall indicate the efficiency of the materials recovery in the process steps, as well as the losses of the same

material in other outputs. The process steps shall describe briefly the operations that take place in them.

A simplified example is shown in Figure 2.
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Key

a Other outputs from which material A or materials constituent of part I, if present, could be considered if they are eventually recycled or recovered.

Figure 2 — Schematic example of flow diagram of an EoL treatment chain
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The end-of-life treatment scenario shall define and document the full chain of treatment technologies for

a material or a part (e.g. Printed Circuit Board). The EoL treatment scenario shall be taken as a reference

to specify the applicable recyclability and recoverability criteria according to the requirements set in

Clause 6, and to calculate the parameters required in the formulas set in Clause 7.

5.3 Representativeness of the end-of-life treatment scenario

Users of this document shall define on a product- or product-group specific basis the applicable end-of-

life treatment scenario considering the criteria of representativeness listed in the table below:

Table 1 —Representativeness criteria for end-of-life treatment scenario definition

Criteria Guidelines

Product-related The EoL reference scenario shall be appropriate for the category and market of

representativeness the product studied, in particular when treatment technologies are product- or

product-group specific due to applicable regulations, industry practices,
collection flows (e.g. per individual or collective producers’ responsibility
schemes) or health, safety and environmental concerns.
The EoL reference scenario shall be representative for the corresponding
waste collection flow.

Technological State of the art treatment technologies shall form the baseline of the end-of-life

representativeness treatment scenario for each process. For materials or components newly

introduced on the market, treatment processes under development may be
studied and documented.

NOTE The end-of-life treatment scenario will include state of the art technologies,

meaning that the latest, most up-to-date, methods for each technology/process are

included, provided that they are already used by the industry, and economically viable,

in a busine
...

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