Plastics and rubber machines - Calenders - Safety requirements

This draft European standard specifies safety requirements relating to the design and construction of calenders intended for the processing of rubber or plastics.
This draft European standard concerns the calender alone, including all components fixed to its frame.
Annex C shows examples of various types of calenders and Annex D shows examples of calendaring processes.
This draft European standard deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events relevant to the design and construction of calenders, when the machines are used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Annex B).
This draft European standard does not deal with:
-   hazards generated by the processing of explosive materials, or materials which give rise to an explosive atmosphere;
-   hazards due to laser or ionizing radiation;
-   hazards generated if the calender is installed in an explosive atmosphere.
Two roll mills are covered by EN 1417.
This draft European standard applies to machinery manufactured after its date of approval by CEN.

Kunststoff- und Gummimaschinen - Kalander - Sicherheitsanforderungen

Dieses Dokument legt Sicherheitsanforderungen an die Konstruktion und den Bau von Kalandern (siehe 3.1.1) fest, die für das Kalandrieren, Glätten, Laminieren oder Prägen von Gummi oder Kunststoff vorgesehen sind.
Dieses Dokument betrifft nur Kalander, einschließlich der folgenden integrierten Komponenten: Schneideinrichtung, Führungsbacken, Beschickungseinrichtung und Nebenwalzen.
Anhang C enthält Beispiele von verschiedenen Kalanderbauarten und Anhang D enthält Beispiele für Kalandrierverfahren.
Dieses Dokument behandelt alle signifikanten Gefährdungen, Gefährdungssituationen oder Gefährdungsereignisse, die für die Konstruktion und den Bau von Kalandern in sämtlichen Lebensphasen der Maschine wie in EN ISO 12100:2010, 5.4 beschreiben wesentlich sind, wenn die Maschinen wie vorgesehen und unter den Bedingungen, die vom Hersteller als Fehlanwendung vernünftigerweise vorhersehbar sind, verwendet werden (siehe Anhang B).
Dieses Dokument behandelt nicht:
   Gefährdungen, die durch die Verarbeitung von explosiven Stoffen oder Materialien entstehen, die zu einer explosionsfähigen Atmosphäre führen;
   Gefährdungen durch Laser oder ionisierender Strahlung;
   Gefährdungen, die entstehen, wenn der Kalander in einer explosionsfähigen Atmosphäre aufgestellt wird.
Walzwerke sind durch EN 1417 abgedeckt.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für Kalander, die vor dessen Veröffentlichung hergestellt worden sind.

Machines pour le caoutchouc et les matières plastiques - Calandres - Prescriptions de sécurité

Le présent document spécifie les prescriptions de sécurité relatives à la conception et à la construction des calandres (voir 3.1.1) destinées au calandrage, polissage, doublage ou grainage du caoutchouc ou des matières plastiques.
Le présent document concerne la calandre seule, y compris les éléments suivants, faisant partie intégrante de la calandre : le dispositif de coupe, les oreilles, le dispositif d'alimentation et le rouleau annexe.
L'Annexe C donne des exemples de différents types de calandres et l'Annexe D donne des exemples de procédés de calandrage.
Le présent document traite de tous les phénomènes dangereux, situations dangereuses ou événements dangereux significatifs pertinents pour la conception et la construction des calandres, en cas d’utilisation normale ou de mauvais usage raisonnablement prévisible par le fabricant pendant toutes les phases de la vie de la machine, tel que décrit dans l'EN ISO 12100:2010, 5.4 (voir Annexe B).
Le présent document ne traite pas :
-   des phénomènes dangereux engendrés par le travail de produits explosifs ou de produits générant une atmosphère explosive ;
-   des phénomènes dangereux liés aux rayonnements laser ou ionisants ;
-   des phénomènes dangereux liés à l'installation de la calandre dans une atmosphère explosive.
Les mélangeurs à cylindres sont traités dans l'EN 1417.
Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux calandres fabriquées avant sa date de publication.

Stroji za predelavo gume in plastike - Kalandri - Varnostne zahteve

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
02-Feb-2016
Publication Date
10-Aug-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Dec-2019
Due Date
24-Feb-2020
Completion Date
11-Aug-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 12301:2020
01-september-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12301:2000+A1:2008
Stroji za predelavo gume in plastike - Kalandri - Varnostne zahteve
Plastics and rubber machines - Calenders - Safety requirements
Kunststoff- und Gummimaschinen - Kalander - Sicherheitsanforderungen

Machines pour le caoutchouc et les matières plastiques - Calandres - Prescriptions de

sécurité
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12301:2019
ICS:
83.200 Oprema za gumarsko Equipment for the rubber and
industrijo in industrijo plastics industries
polimernih materialov
SIST EN 12301:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 12301:2020
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 83.200 Supersedes EN 12301:2000+A1:2008
English Version
Plastics and rubber machines - Calenders - Safety
requirements

Machines pour les matières plastiques et le caoutchouc Kunststoff- und Gummimaschinen - Kalander -

- Calandres - Prescriptions de sécurité Sicherheitsanforderungen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 August 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12301:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................. 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 12

4 Safety requirements and/or protective measures .......................................................................... 12

4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Control systems ............................................................................................................................................ 12

4.3 Protection against mechanical hazards ............................................................................................... 15

4.4 Stability ............................................................................................................................................................ 29

4.5 Electrical hazards ......................................................................................................................................... 30

4.6 Thermal hazards .......................................................................................................................................... 30

4.7 Protection against fire ................................................................................................................................ 30

4.8 Hazards due to noise ................................................................................................................................... 30

4.9 Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles ............................................................... 31

4.10 Hazards due to unexpected start-up ..................................................................................................... 31

4.11 Slip, trip and fall hazards ........................................................................................................................... 31

4.12 Hazards generated by the materials being processed .................................................................... 32

4.13 Hazards due to electromagnetic interference ................................................................................... 32

5 Verification of the safety requirements and/or protective measures ...................................... 32

6 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 36

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 36

6.2 Instruction handbook ................................................................................................................................. 36

6.3 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 38

Annex A (normative) Noise test code ................................................................................................................. 39

Annex B (informative) List of significant hazards ......................................................................................... 44

Annex C (informative) Examples of different types of calenders ............................................................ 46

Annex D (informative) Examples of calendering processes ...................................................................... 47

Annex E (informative) Calculation of dimension L of the crushing zone (for rolls of equal

diameters) ...................................................................................................................................................... 49

Annex F (informative) Fixed guards at the crushing zone ......................................................................... 50

Annex G (informative) Means of access ............................................................................................................. 51

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC aimed to be covered .................................................... 52

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 55

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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 12301:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 145 “Plastics and

rubber machines”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2020 and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12301:2000+A1:2008.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this

document.

The main changes with respect to the previous edition EN 12301:2000+A1:2008 are as follows:

— the Scope is extended to cover also two-roll calenders forming an integral unit with an extruder

(roller head) and two or three-roll polishing, laminating or embossing units installed downstream of

extruders in film processing lines;
— the structure is modified;
— the list of significant hazards is moved to an informative annex;
— technical developments in safeguards are taken into account;
— requirements for braking system and roll separation are updated;
— revised type-A and type-B standards are taken into account;

— the performance levels of safety related parts of control systems are specified in accordance with

EN ISO 13849-1:2015;
— a full noise test code is provided in a normative annex.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
Introduction
This document is a type C standard as stated in EN ISO 12100:2010.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the market

players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organizations, market surveillance, etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e.g. for maintenance (small, medium and large enterprises).

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events are

covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or type-B

standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of the other

standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of this type-C

standard.
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies safety requirements relating to the design and construction of calenders (see

3.1.1) intended for the calendering, polishing, laminating or embossing of rubber or plastics.

This document concerns the calender alone, including the following integrated components: cutting

device, stock guides, feeding device and secondary roller.

Annex C shows examples of various types of calenders and Annex D shows examples of calendaring

processes.

This document deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events relevant to

the design and construction of calenders, when the machines are used as intended and under the

conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer during all the phases of the

life of the machine as described in EN ISO 12100:2010, 5.4 (see Annex B).
This document does not deal with:

— hazards generated by the processing of explosive materials, or materials which give rise to an

explosive atmosphere;
— hazards due to laser or ionizing radiation;
— hazards generated if the calender is installed in an explosive atmosphere.
Two roll mills are covered by EN 1417.

This document is not applicable to calenders manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CLC/TS 61496-3:2008, Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective equipment - Part 3: Particular

requirements for Active Opto-electronic Protective Devices responsive to Diffuse Reflection (AOPDDR)

EN 349:1993+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body

EN 614-1:2006+A1:2009, Safety of machinery - Ergonomic design principles - Part 1: Terminology and

general principles

EN 619:2002+A1:2010, Continuous handling equipment and systems — Safety and EMC requirements for

equipment for mechanical handling of unit loads

EN 12198-1:2000+A1:2008, Safety of machinery - Assessment and reduction of risks arising from radiation

emitted by machinery - Part 1: General principles

EN 60204-1:2018, Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 1: General requirements

(IEC 60204-1:2016, modified)

EN 60947-5-8:2006, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - Part 5-8: Control circuit devices and

switching elements - Three-position enabling switches (IEC 60947-5-8:2006)

EN 61000-6-2:2005, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-2: Generic standards - Immunity for

industrial environments (IEC 61000-6-2:2005)

EN 61000-6-4:2007, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-4: Generic standards - Emission

standard for industrial environments (IEC 61000-6-4:2006)
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)

EN 61310-1:2008, Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 1: Requirements for

visual, acoustic and tactile signals (IEC 61310-1:2007)

EN 61496-1:2013, Safety of machinery - Electro-sensitive protective equipment - Part 1: General

requirements and tests (IEC 61496-1:2012)

EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources

using sound pressure - Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane (ISO

3744:2010)

EN ISO 3746:2010, Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources

using sound pressure - Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane (ISO

3746:2010)

EN ISO 4413:2010, Hydraulic fluid power - General rules and safety requirements for systems and their

components (ISO 4413:2010)

EN ISO 4414:2010, Pneumatic fluid power - General rules and safety requirements for systems and their

components (ISO 4414:2010)

EN ISO 4871:2009, Acoustics - Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and

equipment (ISO 4871:1996)

EN ISO 7731:2008, Ergonomics - Danger signals for public and work areas - Auditory danger signals (ISO

7731:2003)

EN ISO 9614-2:1996, Acoustics - Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity

- Part 2: Measurement by scanning (ISO 9614-2:1996)

EN ISO 11201:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a

reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201:2010)

EN ISO 11202:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying approximate environmental

corrections (ISO 11202:2010)

EN ISO 11204:2010, Acoustics - Noise emitted by machinery and equipment - Determination of emission

sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying accurate environmental

corrections (ISO 11204:2010)

EN ISO 11688-1:2009, Acoustics - Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and

equipment - Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1:1995)

EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk reduction

(ISO 12100:2010)

EN ISO 13732-1:2008, Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Methods for the assessment of human

responses to contact with surfaces - Part 1: Hot surfaces (ISO 13732-1:2006)

EN ISO 13849-1:2015, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General

principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2015)

EN ISO 13850:2015, Safety of machinery - Emergency stop function - Principles for design (ISO 13850:2015)

EN ISO 13851:2019, Safety of machinery - Two-hand control devices - Principles for design and selection

(ISO 13851:2019)
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)

EN ISO 13855:2010, Safety of machinery - Positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of

parts of the human body (ISO 13855:2010)

EN ISO 13856-1:2013, Safety of machinery - Pressure-sensitive protective devices - Part 1: General

principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floors (ISO 13856-1:2013)

EN ISO 13857:2008, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper

and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2008)

EN ISO 14118:2018, Safety of machinery - Prevention of unexpected start-up (ISO 14118:2017)

EN ISO 14119:2013, Safety of machinery - Interlocking devices associated with guards - Principles for

design and selection (ISO 14119:2013)

EN ISO 14120:2015, Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction

of fixed and movable guards (ISO 14120:2015)

EN ISO 14122-1:2016, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 1: Choice of

fixed means and general requirements of access (ISO 14122-1:2016)

EN ISO 14122-2:2016, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 2: Working

platforms and walkways (ISO 14122-2:2016)

EN ISO 14122-3:2016, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 3: Stairs,

stepladders and guard-rails (ISO 14122-3:2016)

EN ISO 14122-4:2016, Safety of machinery - Permanent means of access to machinery - Part 4: Fixed

ladders (ISO 14122-4:2016)

ISO 7010:2019, Graphical symbols - Safety colours and safety signs - Registered safety signs

3 Terms, definitions and symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and the definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
calender

machine for processing rubber, plastics, solutions or dispersions by continuous drawing between two or

more rolls, which are supported at both ends by a frame
Note 1 to entry: The processing operations may be, for example:
— continuous calendering of sheets or profiles of rubber or plastics;
— application of one or more sheet(s) or layer(s) onto a support material;

— laminating of two or more sheets of rubber or plastics under pressure or by using heat or adhesive;

— embossing or polishing of plastics (for example smoothing roll stack).
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)

The calender can be equipped with power operated wheels for the horizontal movement of the complete machine,

e.g. for engaging/disengaging it from an extruder head during setting-up operations.

Note 2 to entry: Figure 1 shows a typical calendering sequence and the positions of most of the components and

zones defined hereafter. Figure 2 shows a typical 3-roll stack supplied by an extruder.

Note 3 to entry: Annex C shows examples of various types of calenders.
Note 4 to entry: Annex D shows examples of various calendering processes.
Key
rubber/plastic circuits
cord/fabric circuit
calendered product circuit
1 calender rolls 4 stock guides
2 secondary rollers 5 feeding devices
3 cutting devices 6 working zones

Figure 1 — Example of a 4-roll calender showing the materials circuit for bilateral coating of

(textile or metallic) fabric or cords
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
Key
1 calender roll 5 cleaning zone
2 extruder head 6 crushing zone
3 frame 7 working zone
4 film
Figure 2 — Example of a 3-roll stack supplied by an extruder
3.1.2
calender roll

roll which is positioned in relation to other calender rolls in order to process the material

Note 1 to entry: The roll can be counterbored or drilled to enable its temperature to be controlled by fluid

circulation.
3.1.3
secondary roller
roller, which is used to support the calendering process
Note 1 to entry: It can be driven and temperature regulated.

Note 2 to entry: Examples of secondary rollers are: pressure rollers, embossing rollers, filament guide rollers,

tension rollers, stripper rollers, crease removing rollers, take-off rollers.
3.1.4
cutting device
equipment for trimming the edges of the sheet to one or more specified widths
EXAMPLE Fixed knives (wires or blades), rotating knives (cutting discs).
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
3.1.5
stock guides

devices located on either side of the feed zone which determine the width of the sheet to be calendered

and retain the stock thus preventing it from extending beyond the normal working area

3.1.6
feeding device
equipment for feeding and distributing the stock in the feed zone
EXAMPLE Table, grid, chute, conveyor, reciprocating feed conveyor.
3.1.7
stopping angle

angle through which the calender rolls rotate from the stop signal triggered by a protective device until

the calender rolls have come to rest
3.1.8
feed zone

zone in which stock (rubber or plastic etc.) and/or material (cords, web, fabric etc.) is fed into the

calender
3.1.9
working zone

area around the calender or standing zone where the operators carry out their normal duties

3.1.10
crushing zone

zone existing between two calender rolls close to each other rotating in opposite directions towards the

nip
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3.
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
Key
1 crushing zone
2 danger zone
S line dimensioned at the entrance to the crushing zone
X length of calender roll
L depth of the crushing zone, expressed in millimetres
D diameter of the calender rolls, expressed in millimetres
α stopping angle, expressed in radians

F radius equivalent to the length of the arcs of circle on the calender rolls corresponding with the specified

stopping angle, expressed in millimetres

S needs to be taken as 12 mm when the rolls are theoretically in contact, irrespective of the roll diameter.

LD6×
; where the roll diameters are different D shall be taken as the larger diameter
F = α

NOTE 1 The danger zone is the volume at the inrunning side of the rolls circumscribed by the length X of the rolls

and the shaded cross-section. This section is delimitated by:
— the line dimensioned S at the entrance to the crushing zone (see 3.1.10);

— the two arcs of circle on the calender rolls corresponding with the specified stopping angle α (see 3.1.7);

— the arc of a circle whose centre is the middle of the line dimensioned S and whose radius F is equivalent to the

length of the arcs of circle on the calender rolls corresponding with the specified stopping angle α.

NOTE 2 An example for the calculation of L is given in Annex E; L remains constant irrespective of the nip

between the rolls.
Figure 3 — Crushing and danger zones at the calender rolls
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SIST EN 12301:2020
EN 12301:2019 (E)
3.1.11
setting
preparing the machine for production, machine set-up, etc.
3.1.12
cleaning
removal of dust, residual material on the rolls, etc.
3.2 Symbols
α stopping angle of the calender roll when running with production speed v
α maximum stopping angle of the calender roll when running with maximum speed v
max max
α reduced stopping angle of the calender roll when running with reduced speed v
r r
v production rotational speed of calender rolls
v maximum rotational speed of the calender rolls
max
v reduced rotational speed of the calender rolls
D (larger) diameter of the calender rolls
F length of arc α on the calender roll surface
F length of arc α on the calender roll surface
r r
S height of entrance of the crushing zone
L depth of crushing zone
4 Safety requirements and/or protective measures
4.1 General

Calenders shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective/risk reduction measures of this

clause. In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100:2010 for

relevant but not significant hazards, which are not dealt with by this document (e.g. sharp edges).

The hydraulic equipment and its components shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 4413:2010.

The pneumatic equipment and its components shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 4414:2010.

4.2 Control systems
4.2.1 General

The safety related parts of the control system shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 13849-1:2015.

The required performance level (PL ) for each safety function is specified in the relevant subclauses.

In the case where the calender is provided with a mode selector, it shall be in accordance with

EN ISO 12100:2010, 6.2.11.10.
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EN 12301:2019 (E)
4.2.2 Starting

The start of an operation shall be possible only when all safeguards are in place and functional

(see EN 60204-1:2018, 9.2.3.2). The machine shall only be started by actuation of the start device

provided for that purpose.
4.2.3 Normal stopping
A normal stop device shall be provided to bring the machine to a complete stop.

The normal stop command shall function as a stop category 0 or 1 in accordance with EN 60204-1:2018,

9.2.2, depending on the used technology.
4.2.4 Emergency stop devices

The emergency stop devices shall comply with EN ISO 13850:2015. For electrical braking, stop category

1 of that standard shall apply. For calenders with simple mechanical braking systems which are not

dependent on electrical energy, stop category 0 may be selected. An emergency stop device shall be

provided on the control panel of the calender. Other emergency stop actuators shall be installed in the

vicinity of and on each side of the working zones.
The actuation of any emergency stop device shall
— cause stopping of the calender rolls in accordance with 4.2.6;

— allow the roll separation or cause automatic roll separation on machines equipped with protective

device requiring automatic roll separation (see 4.3.1.3, 4.3.1.4, 4.3.1.5 and 4.3.1.6);

— allow the rescue reverse movement in accordance with 4.2.7;
— cause the stopping of all integrated components according to PL = c;
— trigger a visual and/or auditory signal, with manual resetting.
See also EN 60204-1:2018, 10.7.
4.2.5 Failure of energy supply

An interruption or a failure of the power supply shall not result in a loss of safety function and restoration

of the energy supply shall not result in the automatic restarting of the machine (see EN ISO 12100:2010,

6.2.11.4 and 6.2.11.5).

Failure of the energy supply which causes opening of a contactor of one of the roll drive motors shall also

cause stopping of the rolls as specified in 4.2.6.

The calender shall also be equipped with a device to enable roll separation to be achieved even in the

event of energy failure (see 6.2.3 m)).
4.2.6 Braking system

In case where the calender rolls can stop without material from maximum speed within a maximum

stopping angle α of 120° there are no specific requirements for braking system.
max

In the case where inrunning nips are protected by fixed guards there are no specific requirements for

bra
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Stroji za predelavo gume in plastike - Kalandri - Varnostne zahteveKunststoff- und Gummimaschinen - Kalander - SicherheitsanforderungenMachines pour le caoutchouc et les matières plastiques - Calandres - Prescriptions de sécuritéPlastics and rubber machines - Calenders - Safety requirements83.200Oprema za gumarsko industrijo in industrijo polimernih materialovEquipment for the rubber and plastics industriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:prEN 12301oSIST prEN 12301:2016en01-januar-2016oSIST prEN 12301:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
oSIST prEN 12301:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
DRAFT prEN 12301
December
t r s w ICS
z uä t r r Will supersede EN
s t u r sã t r r r ªA sã t r r zEnglish Version

Plastics and rubber machines æ Calenders æ Safety requirements Machines pour le caoutchouc et les matières plastiques æ Calandres æ Prescriptions de sécurité

Kunststoffæ und Gummimaschinen æ Kalander æ Sicherheitsanforderungen This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiryä It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

If this draft becomes a European Standardá CEN members are bounwhich stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three ofer language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

Recipients of this draft are invited to submitá with their commentsá notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentationä

Warning ã This document is not a European Standardä It is distributed for review and commentsä It is subject to change without notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standardä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s w CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä prEN

s t u r sã t r s w EoSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8 4 Safety requirements and/or measures ................................................................................................ 14 4.1 General safety requirements and/or protective measures .......................................................... 14 4.1.1 Basic requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 14 4.1.2 Emergency stop equipment ...................................................................................................................... 14 4.1.3 Failure of energy supply ............................................................................................................................ 15 4.1.4 Start-up in forward motion or reverse motion (if existing) ......................................................... 15 4.1.5 Reverse operation ........................................................................................................................................ 15 4.1.6 Stopping of the calender rolls .................................................................................................................. 16 4.1.7 Gravity fall following roll separation .................................................................................................... 16 4.1.8 Rolls closing movement to engage the calender rolls ..................................................................... 16 4.1.9 Rescue reverse movement ........................................................................................................................ 17 4.2 Protection against mechanical hazards ............................................................................................... 17 4.2.1 Preventing access to the crushing zone ............................................................................................... 17 4.2.2 Additional requirements for cleaning .................................................................................................. 26 4.2.3 Hazards due to transmission system .................................................................................................... 26 4.2.4 Hazards at secondary rollers ................................................................................................................... 26 4.2.5 Hazards due to ancillary equipment ..................................................................................................... 27 4.2.6 Powered movement for engaging/disengaging the calendaring units ..................................... 29 4.3 Electrical hazards ......................................................................................................................................... 29 4.3.1 Electrical shock or burns caused by direct or indirect contact with live parts ..................... 29 4.3.2 Electrical shock, or fire due to electrostatic discharge .................................................................. 29 4.4 Thermal hazards .......................................................................................................................................... 29 4.4.1 Burns from contact with hot parts of the calender or hot materials ......................................... 29 4.4.2 Scalds from ejection of heat transfer fluid .......................................................................................... 30 4.4.3 Burns from infrared radiation ................................................................................................................ 30 4.5 Protection against fire when infrared radiation unit is present ................................................ 30 4.6 Hazards due to noise ................................................................................................................................... 30 4.6.1 Main noise sources ...................................................................................................................................... 30 4.6.2 Noise reduction at source by design ..................................................................................................... 30 4.6.3 Noise reduction by devices ....................................................................................................................... 31 4.6.4 Information connected with noise hazards ........................................................................................ 31 4.7 Hazards generated by neglecting ergonomic principles ............................................................... 31 4.8 Hazards due to unexpected start-up ..................................................................................................... 31 4.9 Slip, trip and fall hazards ........................................................................................................................... 31 4.10 Hazards generated by the materials being processed .................................................................... 31 4.11 Hazards due to electromagnetic interference ................................................................................... 31 5 Verification of the safety requirements and/or measures ........................................................... 32 6 Information for use ..................................................................................................................................... 35 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35 oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 3 6.2 Instruction handbook ................................................................................................................................. 36 6.3 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 37 Annex A (normative)

Noise measurement and declaration ......................................................................... 39 A.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 39 A.2 Determination of the A-weighted emission sound pressure level at the workstation ........ 39 A.2.1 Basic standards and measurement procedure .................................................................................. 39 A.2.2 Measurement uncertainty ......................................................................................................................... 40 A.3 Determination of the A-weighted sound power level ...................................................................... 40 A.3.1 Basic standards and measurement procedure .................................................................................. 40 A.3.2 Measurement uncertainty ......................................................................................................................... 40 A.4 Mounting and operating conditions....................................................................................................... 40 A.5 Information to be recorded and reported ........................................................................................... 41 A.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 41 A.5.2 General data.................................................................................................................................................... 41 A.5.3 Mounting and operating conditions....................................................................................................... 41 A.5.4 Standards ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 A.5.5 Noise data ........................................................................................................................................................ 41 A.6 Declaration and verification of noise emission values ................................................................... 42 Annex B (informative)

List of significant hazards ............................................................................................ 43 Annex C (informative)

Examples of different types of calenders ............................................................... 45 Annex D (informative)

Examples of calendering processes ......................................................................... 47 Annex E (informative)

Calculation of dimension L of the crushing zone (for rolls of equal diameters) ....................................................................................................................................................... 49 Annex F (informative)

Fixed guards at the crushing zone ............................................................................ 50 Annex G (informative)

Example of a particular type of guard with limited movement preventing access to the crushing zone ................................................................................................ 51 G.1 Description ...................................................................................................................................................... 51 G.2 Construction and performance ................................................................................................................ 51 Annex H (informative)

Means of access ............................................................................................................... 53 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC ........................................................................................ 54 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 55

oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 4 European foreword This document (prEN 12301:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 145 “Plastics and rubber machines”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI. This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry. This document will supersede EN 12301:2000+A1:2008. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. The main changes with respect to the previous edition (EN 12301:2000+A1:2008) are as follows: — the Scope is extended to cover also two-roll calenders forming an integral unit with an extruder (roller head) and two or three-roll polishing, laminating or embossing units installed downstream of extruders in film processing lines; — the structure is modified; — the list of significant hazards are moved into an informative annex; — technical developments in safeguards are taken into account; — requirements for braking system and roll separation are updated; — revised type-A and type-B standards are taken into account; — the performance levels of safety related parts of control systems are specified in accordance with EN ISO 13849-1:2008. oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 5 Introduction This European standard is a type C standard as described in EN ISO 12100:2010. The extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the scope of this standard. In addition, machinery shall comply as appropriate with EN ISO 12100:2010 for hazards which are not covered by this standard. oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 6 1 Scope This draft European standard specifies safety requirements relating to the design and construction of calenders intended for the processing of rubber or plastics. This draft European standard concerns the calender alone, including all components fixed to its frame. Annex C shows examples of various types of calenders and Annex D shows examples of calendaring processes. This draft European standard deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations or hazardous events relevant to the design and construction of calenders, when the machines are used as intended and under the conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer (see Annex B). This draft European standard does not deal with: — hazards generated by the processing of explosive materials, or materials which give rise to an explosive atmosphere; — hazards due to laser or ionizing radiation; — hazards generated if the calender is installed in an explosive atmosphere. Two roll mills are covered by EN 1417. This draft European standard applies to machinery manufactured after its date of approval by CEN. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 349:1993+A1:2008, Safety of machinery — Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body EN 574:1996+A1:2008, Safety of machinery — Two-hand control devices — Functional aspects — Principles for design EN 614-1, Safety of machinery — Ergonomic design principles — Part 1: Terminology and general principles EN 953:1997+A1:2009, Safety of machinery — Guards — General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards EN 1037, Safety of machinery — Prevention of unexpected start-up EN 12198-1, Safety of machinery — Assessment and reduction of risks arising from radiation emitted by machinery — Part 1: General principles EN 60204-1:2006, Safety of machinery — Electrical equipment of machines — Part 1: General requirements (IEC 60204-1:2005, modified) EN 61000-6-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 6-2: Generic standards — Immunity for industrial environments (IEC 61000-6-2) oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 7 EN 61000-6-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 6-4: Generic standards — Emission standard for industrial environments (IEC 61000-6-4) EN 61310-1, Safety of machinery — Indication, marking and actuation — Part 1: Requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile signals (IEC 61310-1) EN 61496-1, Safety of machinery — Electro-sensitive protective equipment — Part 1: General requirements and tests (IEC 61496-1) CLC/TS 61496-3, Safety of machinery — Electro-sensitive protective equipment — Part 3: Particular requirements for Active Opto-electronic Protective Devices responsive to Diffuse Reflection (AOPDDR) (IEC 61496-3) EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure — Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane (ISO 3744:2010) EN ISO 3746:2010, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure — Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane (ISO 3746:2010) EN ISO 4413, Hydraulic fluid power — General rules and safety requirements for systems and their components (ISO 4413) EN ISO 4414, Pneumatic fluid power — General rules and safety requirements for systems and their components (ISO 4414) EN ISO 4871:2009, Acoustics — Declaration and verification of noise emission values of machinery and equipment (ISO 4871:1996) EN ISO 7731, Ergonomics — Danger signals for public and work areas — Auditory danger signals (ISO 7731) EN ISO 9614-2:1996, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity — Part 2: Measurement by scanning (ISO 9614-2:1996) EN ISO 11201:2010, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201:2010) EN ISO 11202:2010, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying approximate environmental corrections (ISO 11202:2010) EN ISO 11204:2010, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying accurate environmental corrections (ISO 11204:2010) EN ISO 11688-1, Acoustics — Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and equipment — Part 1: Planning (ISO/TR 11688-1) EN ISO 11688-2, Acoustics — Recommended practice for the design of low-noise machinery and equipment — Part 2: Introduction to the physics of low-noise design (ISO/TR 11688-2) oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 8 EN ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction (ISO 12100:2010) EN ISO 13732-1, Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Methods for the assessment of human responses to contact with surfaces — Part 1: Hot surfaces (ISO 13732-1) EN ISO 13849-1:2008, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles for design (ISO 13849-1:2006) EN ISO 13850, Safety of machinery — Emergency stop — Principles for design (ISO 13850) EN ISO 13855:2010, Safety of machinery — Positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body (ISO 13855:2010) EN ISO 13856-1:2013, Safety of machinery — Pressure-sensitive protective devices — Part 1: General principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floors (ISO 13856-1:2013) EN ISO 13857:2008, Safety of machinery — Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and lower limbs (ISO 13857:2008) EN ISO 14119:2013, Safety of machinery — Interlocking devices associated with guards — Principles for design and selection (ISO 14119:2013) EN ISO 14122-1, Safety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — Part 1: Choice of fixed means of access between two levels (ISO 14122-1) EN ISO 14122-2, Safety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — Part 2: Working platforms and walkways (ISO 14122-2) EN ISO 14122-3, Safety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — Part 3: Stairs, stepladders and guard-rails (ISO 14122-3) EN ISO 14122-4, Safety of machinery — Permanent means of access to machinery — Part 4: Fixed ladders (ISO 14122-4) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and the definitions given in EN ISO 12100:2010 and the following apply. 3.1 calender machine for processing rubber, plastics, solutions or dispersions by continuous drawing between two or more rolls, which are supported at both ends by a frame Note 1 to entry: The processing operations may be, for example: — continuous calendering of sheets or profiles of rubber or plastics; — application of one or more sheet(s) or layer(s) onto a support material; — laminating of two or more sheets of rubber or plastics under pressure or by using heat or adhesive; — embossing or polishing of plastics (for example smoothing roll stack). oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 9 Note 2 to entry: Figure 1 shows a typical calendering sequence and the positions of most of the components and zones defined hereafter. Note 3 to entry: Annex C shows examples of various types of calenders. Note 4 to entry: Annex D shows examples of various calendering processes.

Key 1 calender rolls 4 stock guides 2 secondary rollers 5 feeding devices 3 cutting devices 6 working zones Figure 1 — Example of a 4-roll calender showing the materials circuit for bilateral coating of (textile or metallic) fabric or cords oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 10

Key 1 calender roll 4 film 2 extruder head 5 working zone (cleaning) 3 frame 6 crushing zone Figure 2 — Example of a 3-roll stack supplied by an extruder oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 11 3.2 calender roll roll which is positioned in relation to other calender rolls in order to process the material Note 1 to entry: The roll may be counterbored or drilled to enable its temperature to be controlled by fluid circulation. 3.3 secondary roller roller, which is used to support the calendering process Note 1 to entry: It may be driven and temperature regulated. Note 2 to entry: Examples of secondary rollers are: pressure rollers, embossing rollers, filament guide rollers, tension rollers, stripper rollers, crease removing rollers, take-off rollers. 3.4 cutting equipment equipment for trimming the edges of the sheet to one or more specified widths EXAMPLE Fixed knives (wires or blades), rotating knives (cutting discs). 3.5 stock guides devices located on either side of the feed zone which determine the width of the sheet to be calendered and retain the stock thus preventing it from extending beyond the normal working area 3.6 feeding device equipment for feeding and distributing the stock in the feed zone EXAMPLE Table, grid, chute, conveyor, reciprocating feed conveyor. 3.7 stopping angle angle through which the calender rolls rotate from the stop signal triggered by a protective device until the calender rolls have come to rest 3.8 feed zone zone in which stock (rubber or plastic etc.) and/or material (cords, web, fabric etc.) is fed into the calender 3.9 working zone area of the calender where the operators carry out their normal duties 3.10 crushing zone zone existing between two calender rolls close to each other rotating in opposite directions towards the nip Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3. oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 12 3.11 danger zone zone existing on a calender when access to the crushing zone defined in 3.10 is not prevented by a protective structure placed in the immediate vicinity of the crushing zone Note 1 to entry: The danger zone is the volume at the inrunning side of the rolls circumscribed by the length X of the rolls and the shaded cross-section. This section is delimitated by: — the line dimensioned S at the entrance to the crushing zone (see 3.10); —

3.7); — the arc of a circle whose centre is the middle of the line dimensioned S and whose radius F is equivalent to

oSIST prEN 12301:2016
prEN 12301:2015 (E) 13
Key 1 crushing zone 2 danger zone S

line dimensioned at the entrance to the crushing zone (see 3.10) X length of calender roll L depth of the crushing zone D

diameter of the calander rolls

stopping angle F radius equivalent to the length of the arcs of circle on the calender rolls corresponding with the specified stopping angle a S needs to be taken as 12 mm when the rolls are theoretically in contact, irrespective of the roll diameter. b =6LD; where the roll diameters are different D shall be taken as the larger diameter c α=2DF NOTE An example for the calculation of L is given in Annex E; L remains constant irrespective of the nip between the rolls. Figure 3 — Crushing and danger zones at the calender rolls 3.12 setting preparing the machine for production, including cleaning, machine set-up, etc. oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 14 4 Safety requirements and/or measures 4.1 General safety requirements and/or protective measures 4.1.1 Basic requirements Calenders shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this clause. In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100:2010 for relevant but not significant hazards, which are not dealt with by this document (e.g. sharp edges). The safety related parts of the control system shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 13849-1:2008. The required performance level (PLr) for each safety function is specified in the relevant subclauses. The hydraulic equipment and its components shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 4413. The pneumatic equipment and its components shall be designed in accordance with EN ISO 4414. An interruption or a failure of the power supply shall not result in a loss of safety function and restoration of the energy supply shall not result in the automatic restarting of the machine (see EN ISO 12100:2010, 6.2.11.4 and 6.2.11.5). The start of an operation shall be possible only when all safeguards are in place and functional (see EN 60204-1:2006, 9.2.5.2).The machine shall only be started by actuation of the start device provided for that purpose. The manual release of the brake shall be interlocked with the control circuit in accordance with PLr = d of EN ISO 13849-1:2008, so that the powered rotation of the calender rolls is prevented as long as the brake is released. The calender shall be provided with a mode selector in accordance with EN ISO 12100:2010, 6.2.11.10 which shall include the control positions for at least the following actions: — stopping; — forward motion at slow speed; — forward motion at production speed; — reverse motion (if existing). An operational stop device (e.g. a push button) shall be provided to stop all movements. 4.1.2 Emergency stop equipment The emergency stop equipment shall comply with EN ISO 13850. For electrical braking, stop category 1 of that standard shall apply. For calenders with simple mechanical braking systems which are not dependent on electrical energy, category 0 may be selected. An emergency stop actuator shall be provided on the control panel of the calender. Other emergency stop actuators shall be installed in the vicinity of and on each side of the working zones. The actuation of any emergency stop actuator shall — cause stopping of the calender rolls in accordance with 4.1.6; — allow the roll separation or cause automatic roll separation on machines equipped with safety device requiring automatic roll separation (see 4.2.1.3, 4.2.1.4, 4.2.1.5 and 4.2.1.6); — allow the rescue reverse movement in accordance with 4.1.9; oSIST prEN 12301:2016

prEN 12301:2015 (E) 15 — trigger a visual and/or auditory signal, with manual r
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