Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2016)

This document specifies performance requirements for cathodic protection of steel in cement-based
concrete, in both new and existing structures. It covers building and civil engineering structures,
including normal reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement embedded in the concrete. It is
applicable to uncoated steel reinforcement and to organic-coated steel reinforcement.
This document applies to steel embedded in atmospherically exposed, buried, immersed and tidal
elements of buildings or structures.
NOTE 1 Annex A gives guidance on the principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete.
NOTE 2 This document, while not specifically intended to address cathodic protection of steel in any
electrolyte except concrete, can be applied to cathodic protection of steel in other cementitious materials such as
are found, for example, in early 20th century steel-framed masonry, brick and terracotta clad buildings. In such
applications, additional considerations specific to these structures are required in respect of design, materials
and installation of cathodic protection; however, the requirements of this document can be applied to these
systems.

Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO 12696:2016)

Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton (ISO 12696:2016)

ISO 12696:2016 spécifie les exigences de performance pour la protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton à base de ciment, pour les structures nouvelles comme pour les structures existantes. Il traite des bâtiments et des ouvrages d'art, y compris les armatures et les précontraintes noyées dans le béton. Il s'applique aux armatures en acier non revêtu et aux armatures en acier recouvert par un revêtement organique.
ISO 12696:2016 s'applique à l'acier noyé dans des éléments de bâtiments ou de structures qui sont exposés à l'atmosphère, enterrés, immergés ou soumis à la marée.
NOTE 1 L'Annexe A fournit des lignes directrices relatives aux principes de la protection cathodique et à son application à l'acier dans le béton.
NOTE 2 Bien qu'il ne soit pas spécifiquement destiné à traiter de la protection cathodique de l'acier dans n'importe quel autre électrolyte que le béton, le présent document peut s'appliquer à la protection cathodique de l'acier dans d'autres matériaux à base de ciment tels que ceux rencontrés, par exemple, dans les bâtiments à charpente d'acier du début du 20e siècle à parement de maçonnerie, de brique et de terre cuite. Dans de telles applications, des considérations supplémentaires spécifiques à ces structures sont à prendre en compte en ce qui concerne la conception, les matériaux et l'installation de la protection cathodique; cependant, les exigences du présent document peuvent être appliquées à ces systèmes.

Katodna zaščita jekla v betonu (ISO 12696:2016)

Ta dokument določa zahteve glede učinkovitosti za katodno zaščito jekla v betonu na osnovi cementa v novih in obstoječih objektih. Zajema stavbe in gradbene inženirske objekte, vključno z običajno armaturo in prednapeto armaturo v betonu. Uporablja se za neprevlečeno jekleno armaturo in organsko prevlečeno jekleno armaturo.
Ta dokument se uporablja za jeklo v atmosferi izpostavljenih, zakopanih, potopljenih in plimnih
elementih stavb ali objektov.
OPOMBA 1: Dodatek A podaja smernice o načelih katodne zaščite in njeni uporabi za jeklo v betonu.
OPOMBA 2: Ta dokument, čeprav ne obravnava posebej katodne zaščite jekla v katerem koli elektrolitu razen betona, se lahko uporablja za katodno zaščito jekla v drugih cementnih materialih, ki so lahko prisotni na primer v stavbah iz zgodnjega 20. stoletja, izdelanih iz zidakov z jeklenim ogrodjem, opek in terakote. Pri takih vrstah uporabe so potrebni dodatni premisleki, posebej namenjeni tem strukturam, v zvezi z načrtovanjem, materiali in namestitvijo katodne zaščite, vendar se lahko zahteve iz tega dokumenta uporabljajo za te sisteme.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Oct-2016
Publication Date
29-Jan-2017
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Jan-2017
Due Date
12-Mar-2017
Completion Date
30-Jan-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
01-marec-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 12696:2012
.DWRGQD]DãþLWDMHNODYEHWRQX ,62
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2016)
Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO 12696:2016)
Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton (ISO 12696:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12696:2016
ICS:
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
77.140.15 Jekla za armiranje betona Steels for reinforcement of
concrete
91.080.40 Betonske konstrukcije Concrete structures
SIST EN ISO 12696:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
EN ISO 12696
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.140.15; 77.060 Supersedes EN ISO 12696:2012
English Version
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2016)

Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton (ISO Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO

12696:2016) 12696:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 November 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12696:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
EN ISO 12696:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
EN ISO 12696:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 12696:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156

"Corrosion of metals and alloys" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 219 “Cathodic

protection” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 12696:2012.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12696:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12696:2016 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12696
Second edition
2016-12-01
Cathodic protection of steel in
concrete
Protection cathodique de l’acier dans le béton
Reference number
ISO 12696:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Quality management systems .................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Design ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Structure assessment and repair ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Records .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Visual inspection and delamination survey ................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Chloride analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Carbonation depth measurement ........................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Concrete cover and reinforcement location................................................................................................................... 4

5.7 Reinforcement electrical continuity ..................................................................................................................................... 4

5.8 Steel/concrete potential ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.9 Concrete electrical resistivity ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.10 Repair .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.10.2 Concrete removal............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.10.3 Reinforcement preparation .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10.4 Concrete reinstatement ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.11 Cementitious overlay ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.12 New structures ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Cathodic protection system components .................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Anode systems ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 Conductive coating anode systems .................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.2 Activated titanium anode systems .................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Titania ceramic anodes ...........................................................................................................................................11

6.2.4 Conductive cementitious anodes ....................................................................................................................11

6.2.5 Embedded galvanic anodes .................................................................................................................................11

6.2.6 Surface-mounted galvanic anodes .................................................................................................................11

6.2.7 Buried and immersed anodes............................................................................................................................11

6.3 Monitoring sensors ..........................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.3.2 Portable reference electrodes ...........................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 Other sensors ...................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Monitoring instrumentation ....................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.2 Digital meters ..................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.3 Data loggers ......................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Data management system ..........................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Direct current cables .......................................................................................................................................................................17

6.7 Junction boxes .......................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.8 Power supplies .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.9 Transformer-rectifiers ......... ..........................................................................................................................................................18

7 Installation procedures ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Electrical continuity ........................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 Performance monitoring system ..........................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)

7.3 Connections to steel in concrete ...........................................................................................................................................21

7.4 Concrete repairs associated with the cathodic protection components ............................................21

7.5 Surface preparation for anode installation..................................................................................................................21

7.6 Anode installation .............................................................................................................................................................................22

7.7 Connections to the anode system ........................................................................................................................................22

7.8 Anode overlay, surface sealant or decorative coating application ..........................................................22

7.9 Electrical installation ......................................................................................................................................................................23

7.10 Testing during installation .........................................................................................................................................................23

8 Commissioning ....................................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.1 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................................................................24

8.2 Pre-energizing measurements ...............................................................................................................................................24

8.3 Initial energizing of impressed current systems ....................................................................................................25

8.4 Initial adjustment of impressed current systems ..................................................................................................25

8.5 Initial performance assessment ............................................................................................................................................25

8.6 Criteria of protection: Interpretation of performance assessment data ............................................26

8.7 Adjustment of protection current for impressed current systems .........................................................28

9 System records and documentation ..............................................................................................................................................28

9.1 Quality and test records ...............................................................................................................................................................28

9.2 Installation and commissioning report ..........................................................................................................................28

9.3 Operation and maintenance manual .................................................................................................................................29

10 Operation and maintenance ..................................................................................................................................................................29

10.1 Intervals and procedures ............................................................................................................................................................29

10.2 System review .......................................................................................................................................................................................30

10.3 System review report .....................................................................................................................................................................30

Annex A (informative) Principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete ...31

Annex B (informative) Design process ............................................................................................................................................................37

Annex C (informative) Notes on anode systems .....................................................................................................................................41

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12696:2012), of which it constitutes a

minor revision with the following changes:
— figures for MnO , NaOH (0,5 M) in Table A.1 have been updated;
— general editorial corrections throughout the document.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)
Introduction

This document applies to cathodic protection of steel in concrete, with the concrete atmospherically

exposed, buried or immersed.

Because the criteria of protection for steel in buried or immersed concrete are those applicable to

cathodic protection of steel in atmospherically exposed concrete, this revision of EN 12696:2000

incorporates cathodic protection of steel in buried and immersed concrete. The provision of cathodic

protection current can often be more economically provided to steel in buried and immersed concrete

by using buried or immersed anode systems detailed in International Standards for buried and

immersed steel structures, rather than the anode systems that are suitable for applications to steel

in atmospherically exposed concrete. Therefore, reference is made to other International Standards in

this respect while the cathodic protection performance criteria for steel in concrete are defined in this

document for all exposures.

There are other electrochemical treatments intended to provide corrosion control for steel in concrete.

These techniques include re-alkalization and chloride extraction and are not incorporated into this

document. CEN/TS 14038-1:2004 and CEN/TS 14038-2:2011 have been published.

Cathodic protection of steel in concrete is a technique that has been demonstrated to be successful in

appropriate applications in providing cost effective long-term corrosion control for steel in concrete.

It is a technique that requires specific design calculations and definition of installation procedures in

order to be successfully implemented. This document does not represent a design code for cathodic

protection of steel in concrete, but represents a performance standard for which it is anticipated, in

order to comply with this document, a detailed design and specification for materials, installation,

commissioning and operation will be prepared.
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12696:2016(E)
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for cathodic protection of steel in cement-based

concrete, in both new and existing structures. It covers building and civil engineering structures,

including normal reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement embedded in the concrete. It is

applicable to uncoated steel reinforcement and to organic-coated steel reinforcement.

This document applies to steel embedded in atmospherically exposed, buried, immersed and tidal

elements of buildings or structures.

NOTE 1 Annex A gives guidance on the principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete.

NOTE 2 This document, while not specifically intended to address cathodic protection of steel in any

electrolyte except concrete, can be applied to cathodic protection of steel in other cementitious materials such as

are found, for example, in early 20th century steel-framed masonry, brick and terracotta clad buildings. In such

applications, additional considerations specific to these structures are required in respect of design, materials

and installation of cathodic protection; however, the requirements of this document can be applied to these

systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1504 (all parts), Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures —

Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity

EN 14629, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures — Test methods —

Determination of chloride content in hardened concrete

EN 14630, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures — Test methods —

Determination of carbonation depth in hardened concrete by the phenolphthalein method

IEC 60502-1, Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV

(Um = 1,2 kV) to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) — Part 1: Cables for rated voltages of 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV

(Um = 3,6 kV)
IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock — Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 61558-1, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 1: General

requirements and tests

IEC 61558-2-1, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 2-1:

Particular requirements and tests for separating transformers and power supplies incorporating separating

transformers for general applications

IEC 61558-2-2, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 2-2:

Particular requirements and tests for control transformers and power supplies incorporating control

transformers
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
ISO 12696:2016(E)

IEC 61558-2-4, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for supply voltages

up to 1 100 V — Part 2-4: Particular requirements and tests for isolating transformers and power supply

units incorporating isolating transformers

IEC 61558-2-13, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for supply

voltages up to 1 100 V — Part 2-13: Particular requirements and tests for auto transformers and power

supply units incorporating auto transformers

IEC 61558-2-16, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for voltages

up to 1 100 V — Part 2-16: Particular requirements and tests for switch mode power supply units and

transformers for switch mode power supply units

IEC 62262, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against external

mechanical impacts (IK code)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8044 and EN 1504 (all parts)

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
zone
part of a cathodic protection system

Note 1 to entry: Anode systems may be divided into separate zones to supply current to a fully continuous

reinforcement mesh. Altern
...

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