The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in accordance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100 series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
This document defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
— provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospatial a...
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This document defines the conceptual schema for the description of referencing by coordinates. It describes the minimum data required to define coordinate reference systems. This document supports the definition of:
— spatial coordinate reference systems where coordinate values do not change with time. The system may:
— be geodetic and apply on a national or regional basis, or
— apply locally such as for a building or construction site, or
— apply locally to an image or image sensor;
— b...
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This document specifies the data structure and content of an interface that permits communication between position-providing device(s) and position-using device(s) enabling the position-using device(s) to obtain and unambiguously interpret position information and determine, based on a measure of the degree of reliability, whether the resulting position information meets the requirements of the intended use.
A standardized interface for positioning allows the integration of reliable position in...
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This document specifies conceptual schemas for describing the spatial characteristics of geographic entities, and a set of spatial operations consistent with these schemas. It treats "vector" geometry and topology. It defines standard spatial operations for use in access, query, management, processing and data exchange of geographic information for spatial (geometric and topological) objects. Because of the nature of geographic information, these geometric coordinate spaces will normally have up...view more

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This document defines XML based encoding rules for conceptual schemas specifying types that describe geographic resources. The encoding rules support the UML profile as used in the UML models commonly used in the standards developed by ISO/TC 211. The encoding rules use XML schema for the output data structure schema.
The encoding rules described in this document are not applicable for encoding UML application schema for geographic features (see ISO 19136 for those rules).

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This document defines the conceptual schema for spatial references based on geographic identifiers. It establishes a general model for spatial referencing using geographic identifiers and defines the components of a spatial reference system. It also specifies a conceptual scheme for a gazetteer.
Spatial referencing by coordinates is addressed in ISO 19111. However, a mechanism for recording complementary coordinate references is included in this document.
This document enables producers of dat...
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This document extends ISO 19115-1:2014 by defining the schema required for an enhanced description
of the acquisition and processing of geographic information, including imagery. Included are the
properties of measuring systems and the numerical methods and computational procedures used to
derive geographic information from the data acquired by them. This document also provides the XML
encoding for acquisition and processing metadata thereby extending the XML schemas defined in ISO/
TS 1911...
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The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in compliance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled in accordance with the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100‑ series of International Standards and including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features.
ISO 19136-2:2015 defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions that:
? provide an open, vendor-neutral framework for the description of geospati...
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This document establishes a methodology for cross-mapping vocabularies. It also specifies an implementation of ISO 19135-1:2015 for the purpose of registering cross-mapped vocabulary entries.
Methodologies for the development of ontologies and taxonomies that relate to geographic information and geomatics are not within the scope of this document.

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ISO 19110:2016 defines the methodology for cataloguing feature types. This document specifies how feature types can be organized into a feature catalogue and presented to the users of a set of geographic data. This document is applicable to creating catalogues of feature types in previously uncatalogued domains and to revising existing feature catalogues to comply with standard practice. This document applies to the cataloguing of feature types that are represented in digital form. Its principle...view more

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ISO 19119:2016 defines requirements for how platform neutral and platform specific specification of services shall be created, in order to allow for one service to be specified independently of one or more underlying distributed computing platforms.
ISO 19119:2016 defines requirements for a further mapping from platform neutral to platform specific service specifications, in order to enable conformant and interoperable service implementations.
ISO 19119:2016 addresses the Meta:Service foundati...
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ISO 19109:2015 defines rules for creating and documenting application schemas, including principles for the definition of features.
The scope of this International Standard includes the following:
- conceptual modelling of features and their properties from a universe of discourse;
- definition of application schemas;
- use of the conceptual schema language for application schemas;
- transition from the concepts in the conceptual model to the data types in the application schema;
- integra...
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ISO 19135-1:2015 specifies procedures to be followed in establishing, maintaining, and publishing registers of unique, unambiguous, and permanent identifiers and meanings that are assigned to items of geographic information. In order to accomplish this purpose, ISO 19135-1:2015 specifies elements that are necessary to manage the registration of these items.

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This part of the Technical Report provides guidance for validation and testing of data, metadata and services, as the main Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) components defined in other parts of CEN/TR 15449.
The guidance is given by means of examples of the validation and testing process required to assure conformance with the requirements existing in the relevant standards and guidelines.

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ISO 19101-1:2014 defines the reference model for standardization in the field of geographic information. This reference model describes the notion of interoperability and sets forth the fundamentals by which this standardization takes place.
Although structured in the context of information technology and information technology standards, ISO 19101-1:2014 is independent of any application development method or technology implementation approach.

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ISO 19115-1:2014 defines the schema required for describing geographic information and services by means of metadata. It provides information about the identification, the extent, the quality, the spatial and temporal aspects, the content, the spatial reference, the portrayal, distribution, and other properties of digital geographic data and services.
ISO 19115-1:2014 is applicable to:
-the cataloguing of all types of resources, clearinghouse activities, and the full description of datasets an...
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ISO 19117:2012 specifies a conceptual schema for describing symbols, portrayal functions that map geospatial features to symbols, and the collection of symbols and portrayal functions into portrayal catalogues. This conceptual schema can be used in the design of portrayal systems. It allows feature data to be separate from portrayal data, permitting data to be portrayed in a dataset independent manner.

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ISO 19157:2013 establishes the principles for describing the quality of geographic data. It
- defines components for describing data quality;
- specifies components and content structure of a register for data quality measures;
- describes general procedures for evaluating the quality of geographic data;
- establishes principles for reporting data quality.
ISO 19157:2013 also defines a set of data quality measures for use in evaluating and reporting data quality. It is applicable to data pr...
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This Technical Report describes a service-centric view of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI).
The Service Centric view addresses the concepts of service specifications, the methodology for developing service specifications through the application of the relevant International Standards, and the content of such service specifications described from the perspective of the five Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) viewpoints:
-   the enterprise viewpoint addresses service aspe...
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ISO 19156:2011 defines a conceptual schema for observations, and for features involved in sampling when making observations. These provide models for the exchange of information describing observation acts and their results, both within and between different scientific and technical communities.
Observations commonly involve sampling of an ultimate feature-of-interest. ISO 19156:2011 defines a common set of sampling feature types classified primarily by topological dimension, as well as samples...
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ISO 19152:2012:
defines a reference Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) covering basic information-related components of land administration (including those over water and land, and elements above and below the surface of the earth);
provides an abstract, conceptual model with four packages related to parties (people and organizations); basic administrative units, rights, responsibilities, and restrictions (ownership rights); spatial units (parcels, and the legal space of buildings and u...
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This part of the Technical Report provides best practices regarding Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs), referencing to the outcomes of the projects in the frame of the European Union funding programmes. It summarises the deliverables of projects, structured according to the reference model defined in Part 1 of this Technical Report, to be made available in an on-line repository where the relevant outcomes are collected and classified in order to provide a structured sets of recommendations for ...view more

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Part 3 of the Technical Report describes a data-centric view of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). The Data Centric view addresses the concepts of semantic interoperability, the methodology for developing data specifications through the application of the relevant International Standards, and the content of such specifications including Application Schemas, Feature Catalogues, General Feature Model, Data Lifecycle Management and Data Quality, Data Access and Data Transformation.
The intended ...
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This part of the Technical Report provides a reference model for a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). It covers framework standards and identifies the relevant standards, technical specifications, technical reports and guidelines.
This part of the Technical Report provides a context model for the other parts of this Technical Report applying general architecture standards.
The intended readership of this Technical Report are those people who are responsible for creating frameworks for SDIs, e...
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ISO 19144-1:2009 establishes the structure of a geographic information classification system, together with the mechanism for defining and registering the classifiers for such a system. It specifies the use of discrete coverages to represent the result of applying the classification system to a particular area and defines the technical structure of a register of classifiers in accordance with ISO 19135.

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ISO 19144-1:2009 establishes the structure of a geographic information classification system, together with the mechanism for defining and registering the classifiers for such a system. It specifies the use of discrete coverages to represent the result of applying the classification system to a particular area and defines the technical structure of a register of classifiers in accordance with ISO 19135.

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ISO 19143:2010 describes an XML and KVP encoding of a system neutral syntax for expressing projections, selection and sorting clauses collectively called a query expression.
These components are modular and intended to be used together or individually by other International Standards which reference ISO 19143:2010.
ISO 19143:2010 defines an abstract component, named AbstractQueryExpression, from which other specifications can subclass concrete query elements to implement query operations.
I...
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ISO 19118:2011 specifies the requirements for defining encoding rules for use for the interchange of data that conform to the geographic information in the set of International Standards known as the "ISO 19100 series".
ISO 19118:2011 specifies requirements for creating encoding rules based on UML schemas, requirements for creating encoding services, and requirements for XML-based encoding rules for neutral interchange of data.
ISO 19118:2011 does not specify any digital media, does not define...
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ISO 19142:2010 specifies the behaviour of a web feature service that provides transactions on and access to geographic features in a manner independent of the underlying data store. It specifies discovery operations, query operations, locking operations, transaction operations and operations to manage stored parameterized query expressions.

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ISO 19126:2009 specifies a schema for feature concept dictionaries to be established and managed as registers. It does not specify schemas for feature catalogues or for the management of feature catalogues as registers. However, because feature catalogue are often derived from feature concept dictionaries, ISO 19126:2009 does specify a schema for a hierarchical register of feature concept dictionaries and feature catalogues. These registers are in accordance with ISO 19135.

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ISO 19141:2008 defines a method to describe the geometry of a feature that moves as a rigid body. Such movement has the following characteristics.
The feature moves within any domain composed of spatial objects as specified in ISO 19107.
The feature may move along a planned route, but it may deviate from the planned route.
Motion may be influenced by physical forces, such as orbital, gravitational, or inertial forces.
Motion of a feature may influence or be influenced by other features, f...
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ISO 6709:2008 is applicable to the interchange of coordinates describing geographic point location. It specifies the representation of coordinates, including latitude and longitude, to be used in data interchange. It additionally specifies representation of horizontal point location using coordinate types other than latitude and longitude. It also specifies the representation of height and depth that can be associated with horizontal coordinates. Representation includes units of measure and coor...view more

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ISO 19132:2007 defines a reference model and a conceptual framework for location-based services (LBS), and describes the basic principles by which LBS applications may interoperate. This framework references or contains an ontology, a taxonomy, a set of design patterns and a core set of LBS service abstract specifications in UML. ISO 19132:2007 further specifies the framework's relationship to other frameworks, applications and services for geographic information and to client applications.
ISO...
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ISO 19134:2006 specifies the data types and their associated operations for the implementation of multimodal location-based services for routing and navigation. It is designed to specify web services that may be made available to wireless devices through web-resident proxy applications, but is not limited to that environment.

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ISO - Taking over of an ISO Technical Corrigendum

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ISO 19137:2007 defines a core profile of the spatial schema specified in ISO 19107 that specifies, in accordance with ISO 19106, a minimal set of geometric elements necessary for the efficient creation of application schemata.
It supports many of the spatial data formats and description languages already developed and in broad use within several nations or liaison organizations.

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ISO 19131:2007 specifies requirements for the specification of geographic data products, based upon the concepts of other ISO 19100 International Standards. It also provides help in the creation of data product specifications, so that they are easily understood and fit for their intended purpose.

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ISO 19128:2005 specifies the behaviour of a service that produces spatially referenced maps dynamically from geographic information. It specifies operations to retrieve a description of the maps offered by a server, to retrieve a map, and to query a server about features displayed on a map. ISO 19128:2005 is applicable to pictorial renderings of maps in a graphical format; it is not applicable to retrieval of actual feature data or coverage data values.

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ISO 19133:2005 describes the data types, and operations associated with those types, for the implementation of tracking and navigation services. It is designed to specify web services that can be made available to wireless devices through web-resident proxy applications, but is not restricted to that environment.

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ISO 19123:2005 defines a conceptual schema for the spatial characteristics of coverages. Coverages support mapping from a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal domain to feature attribute values where feature attribute types are common to all geographic positions within the domain. A coverage domain consists of a collection of direct positions in a coordinate space that may be defined in terms of up to three spatial dimensions as well as a temporal dimension. Examples of coverages include rasters,...view more

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ISO 19106:2004 is intended to define the concept of a profile of the ISO geographic information standards developed by ISO/TC 211 and to provide guidance for the creation of such profiles. Only those components of specifications that meet the definition of a profile contained herein can be established and managed through the mechanisms described in this International Standard. These profiles can be standardized internationally using the ISO standardization process. This document also provides gu...view more

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ISO 19125-1:2004 establishes a common architecture for geographic information and defines terms to use within the architecture. It also standardizes names and geometric definitions for Types for Geometry.
ISO 19125-1:2004 does not place any requirements on how to define the Geometry Types in the internal schema nor does it place any requirements on when or how or who defines the Geometry Types. ISO 19125-1:2004 does not attempt to standardize and does not depend upon any part of the mechanism b...
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ISO 19108:2002 defines concepts for describing temporal characteristics of geographic information. It depends upon existing information technology standards for the interchange of temporal information. It provides a basis for defining temporal feature attributes, feature operations, and feature associations, and for defining the temporal aspects of metadata about geographic information. Since this International Standard is concerned with the temporal characteristics of geographic information as ...view more

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