Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing - General performance test methods

This International Standard specifies the basic test procedures, conditions and methods for
establishing the main performance parameters and the main operational characteristics of
industrial installations and equipment intended for electroheating (EH) or electromagnetic
processing of materials (EPM).
Measurements and tests that are solely used for the verification of safety requirements of
equipment for EH or for EPM are outside the scope of this standard and are covered by the
IEC 60519 series.
This standard is applicable for the commissioning, verification of design improvements or for
energy related tasks including benchmarking with respect to energy use or energy efficiency,
establishing of an energy baseline, and labelling. Some concepts from this standard can
directly be used as key performance indicators.
Detailed tests for specific types of EH or EPM equipment and installations are beyond the
scope of this standard and are provided in particular test standards for EH or EPM equipment.
This standard is intended as general reference for all future test standards applicable to
particular EH or EPM equipment or installations.
This standard includes the concept and material presented in IEC TS 62796 on energy
efficiency dealing with the electrical and processing parts of the equipment, as well as the
overall performance.

Industrielle Elektrowärmeanlagen - Allgemeine Prüfverfahren

Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique - Méthodes générales d'essai de fonctionnement

L'IEC 60398:2015 spécifie les procédures, conditions et méthodes d'essai fondamentales permettant d'établir les paramètres de performance principaux, ainsi que les caractéristiques de fonctionnement principales des installations et équipements industriels de traitement électrothermique (EH) ou de traitement électromagnétique des matériaux (EPM). Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition de l'IEC 60398 parue en 1999, ainsi que la première édition de l'IEC TS 62796 parue en 2013. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: - le titre et le domaine d'application de la norme ont été étendus afin d'inclure les installations et équipements destinés au traitement électromagnétique des matériaux; - les exigences ont été réorganisées; - les essais concernant la sécurité ont été déplacés dans l'IEC 60519-1; - de nouveaux essais et articles contenant des considérations sur l'efficacité énergétique ont été ajoutés; - une nouvelle annexe plaçant la présente norme dans le contexte d'une évaluation de l'efficacité énergétique telle qu'elle est développée par l'ISO et l'IEC a également été ajoutée; - de nouvelles annexes consacrées à la représentation visuelle des données, ainsi qu'à l'estimation de l'utilisation d'énergie et à la récupérabilité d'énergie des fluides ont été ajoutées.

Naprave za električno ogrevanje in elektromagnetno obdelavo - Splošne metode za preskušanje tehničnih lastnosti

Ta mednarodni standard določa osnovne preskusne postopke, pogoje in metode za določanje glavnih parametrov tehničnih lastnosti ter glavnih obratovalnih značilnosti industrijskih naprav in opreme, namenjene za električno ogrevanje (EH) ali elektromagnetno obdelavo materialov (EPM).
Meritve in preskusi, ki se uporabljajo izključno za preverjanje varnostnih zahtev opreme za električno ogrevanje ali elektromagnetno obdelavo materialov, so zunaj področja uporabe tega standarda, pri čemer so obravnavani v skupini standardov IEC 60519.
Ta standard se uporablja za začetek uporabe, preverjanje izboljšav v zasnovi ali z energijo povezana opravila, vključno s primerjanjem na področju rabe energije ali energetske učinkovitosti, določanjem energetske osnovne vrednosti in označevanjem. Nekateri koncepti iz tega standarda se lahko neposredno uporabljajo kot ključni kazalniki delovanja.
Podrobni preskusi za posebne vrste opreme in naprav za električno ogrevanje ali elektromagnetno obdelavo materialov so zunaj področja uporabe tega standarda ter so opisani v posameznih preskusnih standardih za opremo za električno ogrevanje ali elektromagnetno obdelavo materialov. Ta standard je namenjen uporabi kot splošno sklicevanje za vse prihodnje preskusne standarde, ki se uporabljajo za posamezno opremo in naprave za električno ogrevanje ali elektromagnetno obdelavo materialov. Ta standard zajema koncept in gradivo iz standarda IEC TS 62796 o energetski učinkovitosti, ki obravnava električne in obdelovalne dele opreme ter splošno delovanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Jul-2015
Due Date
01-Oct-2015
Completion Date
17-Aug-2015

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Industrielle Elektrowärmeanlagen - Allgemeine PrüfverfahrenInstallations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique - Méthodes générales d'essai de fonctionnementInstallations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing - General performance test methods25.180.10Electric furnacesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 60398:2015SIST EN 60398:2015en01-september-2015SIST EN 60398:2015SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 60398:20011DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 60398:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 60398
June 2015 ICS 25.180.10
Supersedes
EN 60398:1999
English Version

Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing - General performance test methods (IEC 60398:2015)

Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique - Méthodes générales d'essai de fonctionnement (IEC 60398:2015)

Industrielle Elektrowärmeanlagen - Allgemeine Prüfverfahren (IEC 60398:2015) This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-05-14. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60398:2015 E SIST EN 60398:2015

EN 60398:2015 - 2 - Foreword The text of document 27/949/FDIS, future edition 3 of IEC 60398, prepared by IEC/TC 27 "Industrial electroheating and electromagnetic processing" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 60398:2015.

The following dates are fixed: • latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2016-02-14 • latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the document have to be withdrawn (dow) 2018-05-14

This document supersedes EN 60398:1999.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice The text of the International Standard IEC 60398:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European Standard without any modification. In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60038 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60038. IEC 60519 (Series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60519 (Series). ISO 638:2008 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 638:2008. ISO 2813:2014 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 2813:2014. ISO 8254 (Series) NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 8254 (Series). ISO 12100:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 12100:2010. ISO/IEC Guide 51 NOTE Harmonized as ISO/IEC Guide 51. SIST EN 60398:2015

- 3 - EN 60398:2015
Annex ZA (normative)

Normative references to international publications with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here: www.cenelec.eu.

Publication Year Title EN/HD Year IEC 60519-1 -

Safety in installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing -- Part 1: General requirements EN 60519-1 -

ISO 50001 -
EN ISO 50001 2011
ISO/IEC 13273-1 -

Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources - Common international terminology - Part 1: Energy efficiency - -

ISO/IEC Guide 99 -

International vocabulary of metrology - Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM) - -

SIST EN 60398:2015
SIST EN 60398:2015

IEC 60398 Edition 3.0 2015-04 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NORME INTERNATIONALE Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing –

General performance test methods
Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique –
Méthodes générales d'essai de fonctionnement

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION COMMISSION ELECTROTECHNIQUE INTERNATIONALE

ICS 25.180.10
ISBN 978-2-8322-2602-
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale ®

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé. SIST EN 60398:2015

– 2 – IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7 2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8 3.1 General ................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Energy efficiency .................................................................................................... 9 3.3 States and parts...................................................................................................... 9 3.4 Workload .............................................................................................................. 10 4 Basic provisions for testing and test conditions .............................................................. 10 4.1 Aim of testing ........................................................................................................ 10 4.2 Communication of test results ............................................................................... 11 4.3 Boundaries of the energy using system for testing ................................................ 11 4.3.1 General considerations .................................................................................. 11 4.3.2 Batch type installations .................................................................................. 11 4.3.3 Continuous type installations ......................................................................... 12 4.4 General requirements for testing ........................................................................... 13 4.5 Operating conditions during tests .......................................................................... 13 4.6 Environmental conditions during tests ................................................................... 13 4.7 Supply voltage ...................................................................................................... 13 5 Comparing equipment or installations ............................................................................ 14 6 Measurements and workloads ....................................................................................... 14 6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14 6.2 Time resolution ..................................................................................................... 14 6.3 Frequency measurement ....................................................................................... 15 6.4 Measurement of electric data ................................................................................ 15 6.4.1 Supply voltage ............................................................................................... 15 6.4.2 Voltage, current, electrical power and resistance ........................................... 15 6.4.3 Measurement positions .................................................................................. 15 6.5 Temperature measurement ................................................................................... 15 6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15 6.5.2 Contact thermocouples .................................................................................. 16 6.5.3 Thermographic methods ................................................................................ 16 6.5.4 Colour change of paint or crayon marks ......................................................... 16 6.6 Measurement of pressure, humidity or composition of fluids .................................. 16 6.7 Workload .............................................................................................................. 17 6.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 17 6.7.2 Enthalpy determination using a dummy workload ........................................... 17 6.7.3 Use of a performance test workload ............................................................... 17 6.7.4 Preparation of a performance test workload ................................................... 18 7 Numerical modelling ...................................................................................................... 18 8 Technical tests .............................................................................................................. 19 8.1 Overview............................................................................................................... 19 8.2 Energy consumption and time for cold start-up ...................................................... 19 8.3 Power consumption during hot standby operation ................................................. 19 SIST EN 60398:2015

IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 – 3 – 8.4 Power consumption during holding operation ........................................................ 19 8.5 Energy consumption and time for shut-down operation ......................................... 20 8.6 Energy consumption during a regular maintenance operation................................ 20 8.7 Energy consumption during normal operation........................................................ 20 8.8 Cumulative energy consumption and peak power consumption ............................. 20 8.9 Equipment capacity ............................................................................................... 21 8.10 Performance dependence on supply voltage ......................................................... 21 8.11 Processing range of intended operation ................................................................ 22 8.12 Properties of the processed workload surface ....................................................... 22 8.12.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22 8.12.2 Measurement sensor positions ...................................................................... 23 8.12.3 Temperature homogeneity ............................................................................. 23 8.12.4 Homogeneity of evaporation of a solvent ....................................................... 23 8.12.5 Homogeneity of gloss .................................................................................... 24 8.12.6 Other properties ............................................................................................ 24 9 Efficiency of the installation ........................................................................................... 24 9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 24 9.2 Specific energy consumption of the workload ........................................................ 24 9.3 Heating efficiency of EH or EPM equipment .......................................................... 24 9.4 Supply power usage efficiency .............................................................................. 25 9.5 Energy transfer efficiency ..................................................................................... 25 Annex A (informative)

Energy efficiency assessment ........................................................... 27 A.1 Use of this standard for energy efficiency assessment .......................................... 27 A.2 Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach ....................................................................... 27 A.3 Comparison, classification, labelling ..................................................................... 27 A.4 Comparison with ISO 13579-1 .............................................................................. 28 A.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28 A.4.2 Considered energy generation ....................................................................... 28 A.4.3 Comparing results ......................................................................................... 28 Annex B (informative)

Visual display of energy efficiency related information ....................... 29 B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 29 B.2 Sankey diagram of power balance ........................................................................ 29 B.3 Time resolved power usage diagram ..................................................................... 30 Annex C (informative)

Estimating energy use ....................................................................... 32 C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 32 C.2 Minimum energy consumption ............................................................................... 32 C.3 Holding power ....................................................................................................... 33 C.4 Transfer losses and transfer efficiency .................................................................. 34 C.5 Examples .............................................................................................................. 34 C.5.1 Tempering of TCO on glass substrate ............................................................ 34 C.5.2 Drying and hardening of lacquer .................................................................... 34 Annex D (informative)

Energy recoverability ........................................................................ 35 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 36

Figure B.1 – Example of a Sankey diagram ........................................................................... 29 Figure B.2 – Example of a time-power diagram ..................................................................... 30

SIST EN 60398:2015

– 4 – IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION ____________

INSTALLATIONS FOR ELECTROHEATING
AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSING –
GENERAL PERFORMANCE TEST METHODS

FOREWORD 1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations. 2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any misinterpretation by any end user. 4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter. 5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any services carried out by independent certification bodies. 6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. International Standard IEC 60398 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 27: Industrial electroheating and electromagnetic processing. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 60398 published in 1999 and the first edition of IEC TS 62796 published in 2013. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: • the title and scope of the standard have been expanded to include installations and equipment for electromagnetic processing of materials; • the requirements have been restructured; SIST EN 60398:2015

IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 – 5 – • tests concerning safety have been moved to IEC 60519-11; • new tests and clauses addressing energy efficiency considerations have been added; • a new annex placing this standard in the context of energy efficiency assessment as developed by ISO and IEC has been added; • new annexes addressing visual display of data, estimation of energy use and energy recoverability of fluids have been added. The text of this standard is based on the following documents: FDIS Report on voting 27/949/FDIS 27/952/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on voting indicated in the above table. This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed, • withdrawn, • replaced by a revised edition, or • amended.
___________ 1
Fifth edition to be published. SIST EN 60398:2015

– 6 – IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 INTRODUCTION Designing equipment for electroheating (EH) or for electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM) is a complex task. The manufacturer of the installation or equipment usually needs to fulfil the following requirements, which come from different sources and are quite often in this order of priorities: a) to enable the intended process and make the installation to work properly; b) to be cost effective during design and manufacturing; c) to ensure that the equipment is safe to use in the sense of providing freedom from unacceptable risk of physical injury or damage to the health of the operator (safety in the narrower sense of ISO 12100:2010); d) to prove that the equipment is cost effective to operate and uses sufficiently small amounts of energy, material and other resources; e) to ensure that the equipment is safe to use in the sense of providing freedom from unacceptable risk or physical injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment (adding other safety aims to c) and in the much broader definition of safety according to ISO/IEC Guide 51). It is usually part of the proprietary knowledge of the manufacturer or user of the equipment, to make it cost effective or enabling intended processes with a benefit. IEC 60519-1:— assists with achieving safety in the ISO 12100:2010 sense. The focus of this standard is on basic requirements for measuring instrumentation and test methods concerned with energy and resource efficiency, performance of the intended process and assessing cost of ownership for installations and equipment for EH and EPM. SIST EN 60398:2015

IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 – 7 – INSTALLATIONS FOR ELECTROHEATING
AND ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSING –
GENERAL PERFORMANCE TEST METHODS

1 Scope This International Standard specifies the basic test procedures, conditions and methods for establishing the main performance parameters and the main operational characteristics of industrial installations and equipment intended for electroheating (EH) or electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM). Measurements and tests that are solely used for the verification of safety requirements of equipment for EH or for EPM are outside the scope of this standard and are covered by the IEC 60519 series. This standard is applicable for the commissioning, verification of design improvements or for energy related tasks including benchmarking with respect to energy use or energy efficiency, establishing of an energy baseline, and labelling. Some concepts from this standard can directly be used as key performance indicators. Detailed tests for specific types of EH or EPM equipment and installations are beyond the scope of this standard and are provided in particular test standards for EH or EPM equipment. This standard is intended as general reference for all future test standards applicable to particular EH or EPM equipment or installations. This standard includes the concept and material presented in IEC TS 62796 on energy efficiency dealing with the electrical and processing parts of the equipment, as well as the overall performance. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60519-1:—2, Safety in installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing – Part 1: General Requirements ISO/IEC 13273-13, Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources – Common international terminology – Part 1: Energy Efficiency ISO/IEC Guide 99, International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM) ISO 50001:2011, Energy management systems – Requirements with guidance for use ___________ 2

Fifth edition to be published. 3
To be published. SIST EN 60398:2015

– 8 – IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60519-1, ISO/IEC 13273-1, ISO 50001, ISO/IEC Guide 99, as well as the following apply. NOTE General definitions are given in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary, IEC 60050. Terms relating to industrial electroheating are defined in IEC 60050-841. 3.1 General 3.1.1

energy using system physical item or organization with defined system boundaries, using energy Note 1 to entry: An energy using system can be a plant, a process, part of a process, a building, a part of a building, a machine, equipment, a product, etc. [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:—, 3.1.11, modified – Original cross-references have been deleted.] 3.1.2

system boundary physical or site limits and/or organizational limits as defined by the organization for a stated purpose EXAMPLE A process; a group of processes; a site; an entire organization; multiple sites under the control of an organization. Note 1 to entry: The stated purpose could be for a management system, or for the boundaries of an energy assessment or for the boundaries of a specific measurement and verification activity. [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:—, 3.3.2, modified – “M&V” has been replaced by full term in Note 1 to entry.] 3.1.3

equipment category group within a type of equipment, using the same principle for processing of the workload Note 1 to entry: A category can be further divided with respect to the size or the capacity of equipment. Note 2 to entry: An example of type is equipment for induction heating, and an example of category is such equipment for metal wire heating in a specified capacity interval, using medium frequency. 3.1.4

equipment capacity measure of the production rate capability of equipment in normal operation EXAMPLE Flow, mass or volume. Note 1 to entry: The capacity does not refer to the volume of the working space. 3.1.5

intended workload quality degree to which a set of inherent characteristics of a processed workload fulfils requirements Note 1 to entry: Workload that does not attain the intended workload quality is regarded as scrap or undergoes rework. 3.1.6

processing range, range between an upper and a lower limit of set parameters between which the processed workload exhibits the intended workload quality SIST EN 60398:2015

IEC 60398:2015  IEC 2015 – 9 – 3.2 Energy efficiency 3.2.1

energy efficiency ratio or other quantitative relationship between an output of performance, service, goods or energy, and an input of energy EXAMPLE Conversion efficiency; energy required/energy used; output/input; theoretical energy used to operate/energy used to operate. Note 1 to entry: Both input and output need to be clearly specified in quantity and quality, and be measurable. [SOURCE: ISO 50001:2011, 3.8] 3.2.2

energy intensity quotient describing the total amount of energy necessary to generate a unit of output, activity, economic value, or service EXAMPLE Gigajoule per euro of GDP (gross domestic product); Gigajoule per unit of turnover. [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:—, 3.1.16 modified – Original cross references have been deleted.] 3.2.3

specific energy consumption quotient describing the total amount of energy necessary to generate a unit of output, activity, or service EXAMPLE Gigajoule (GJ) per tonne of steel, annual kilowatt hour (kWh) per square metre (m2), litres (l) of fuel per kilometre (km), etc. [SOURCE: ISO/IEC 13273-1:—, 3.1.17 modified – Original cross references have been deleted.] 3.2.4

heating efficiency, ratio of the usable enthalpy increase in the workload to the electric energy supplied to it during a cycle of batch operation or stationary operation 3.3 States and parts 3.3.1

cold start-up process by which the equipment is energised into hot standby operation from the cold state Note 1 to entry: This mode of operation applies to cases where there is a significant energy consumption needed for obtaining a state of the equipment allowing the actual processing of the workload. 3.3.2

holding power electric power consumed for keeping the workload in the processing chamber or zone at a specified temperature Note 1 to entry: The

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